Nelson Mandela

नयी शिक्षा नीति क्या है | New Education Policy in Hindi 2020

नयी शिक्षा नीति क्या है | Nai Shiksha Neeti | What is New Education Policy

नई शिक्षा नीति को क्यू लाया जा रहा है ?

भारत सरकार के ने नयी शिक्षा नीति का ऐलान किया था साल 2020 मैं इस नीति की लागू करने तथा निर्माण करने के लिए हर एक छोटे से छोटे गाँव, स्कूल, कस्बा, ग्राम पंचायत तथा हर एक शिक्षक के विचारो को ध्यान रखते हुए इस नीति का निर्माण किया जा रहा है ।

नयी शिक्षा नीति इसरो के पूर्व वेज्ञानिक कस्तुरी रंजन की देख रेख मैं बनाई गयी है तथा इसे काफी ही बारीकी तथा हर एक देश के बच्चे का विकास सही रूप से हो सके इन सब बातों तथा व्यक्तिगत विचारो तथा सुझावों को को देखते हुए इस नीति का निर्माण हुआ है ।

भारत सरकार ने इस नीति की अंतरगर्त अपने मानव संसाधन विकास मंत्रालय का नाम बदलकर शिक्षा मंत्रालय कर दिया गया है , जो अब आने वाली नई शिक्षा की नीति की देख रेख करेगा ।

नई शिक्षा नीति क्या है ?

भारत सरकार के द्वारा अब नई शिक्षा नीति की अंतर्गत 5+3+3+4 के अनुसार ही छात्रो की शिक्षा प्रदान की जाएगी तथा या नीति छात्रो के आने वाले कल तो तय करेगी तथा उसे ओर बेहतर बनाएगी जिस से वह अपने जीवन को और बेहतर बना सकेगे ।

5+ शिक्षा नीति को नीव की स्थिति (Foundation State) का नाम दिया गया है।

  • इस नीति की अंतर्ग्र्त छात्रो की स्कूल मैं दाखिले की उम्र अब 3 साल कर दी जाएगी । साथ शुरू के 5 सालो मैं बच्चो की कोई भी परीक्षा नहीं होगी ।
  • नई शिक्षा नीति की अंदर बच्चे को 5 साल मैं से शुरू के 3 साल प्ले स्कूल मैं रखा जाएगा , तथा जब वह 3 वर्ष पूरे कर लेगा तो उसे 6 वर्ष की आयु मैं पहली कक्षा मैं दाखिला दिया जाएगा ।
  • इन शुरुआत के 5 वर्ष मैं बच्चा अपना जीवन केवल खेल कूद तथा अपनी रुचियो मैं बिताएगा अपने सहपाठियो के साथ तथा उसे शुरू के 5 वर्ष कोई परीक्षा नहीं देनी होगी ।
  • अपने 3 वर्ष बच्चे केवल प्ले स्कूल मैं बिताएगा तथा अंतिम के 2 वर्ष उसे कक्षा पहली तथा दूसरी मैं रखा जाएगा ।

3+ शिक्षा नीति को प्रारम्भिक (Preparatory) नीति का नाम दिया गया है।

  • इस प्रक्रिया के अंदर बच्चा सीधा तीसरी, चौथी, तथा पाँचवी कक्षा तक अपना सफर तय करेगा ।
  • इसके अंतरग्रत बच्चो को काफी साधारण कविताए पढ़ाई जाएगी।
  • इस तीन साल नीति के अंदर ही बच्चा पहली बार परीक्षा देगा सीधा 5 वी कक्षा की।
  • प्रारम्भिक नीति के अंदर छात्र केवल राज्य भाषा मैं पढ़ाई कर सकेगा लेकिन यह अनिवार्य नहीं है , अगर माता पिता उसे किसी और राज्य भाषा मैं पढ़ाना चाहते है तो वह पढ़ा सकते है.

अगली 3 प्लस स्टेज को मध्य चरण (Middle Stage) का नाम दिया गया है।

  • इन तीन वर्षो मैं छात्र छटी, सातवी तथा आठवि मैं प्रवेश करेगा ।
  • इस नीति मैं बच्चो को कम्प्युटर का ज्ञान तथा कोडिंग भी सिखायी जाएगी तथा अनेक प्रकार की जानकारिया भी दी जाएगी ।
  • व्यसायिक विभाग को भी इसमे जगह दी गयी है अगर कोई छात्र किसी तरह की सिलाई कढ़ाई , या अनेक विषय मैं रुचि रखता है तो उसे पूरी आजादी होगी उस काम के बारे मैं ज्ञान अर्जित करने की ।
  • गणित, विज्ञान , तथा अनेक प्रकार के विषय इसमे शामिल होगे जिसे छात्र अपनी रुचि के अनुसार चुन ने के विकल्प होगे ।
  • इस नीति मैं छात्रो को एक कोई भी राज्य भाषा को पढ़ना अनिवार्य होगा ।

इस नीति को द्वीत्य चरण (Secondary Stage) का नाम दिया गया है ।

  • इस नीति मैं आप कक्षा नवी, दस्वी , ग्यारवी तथा बहारवी मैं प्रवेश करेगे।
  • दूसरे चरण की नीति मैं छात्रो को हर 6 महीने मैं परीक्षा देनी होगी ।
  • अब छात्र अपने पसंदीदा विषय अपने अनुसार चुन सकते है , तथा पढ़ सकते है , इस नीति के अंतर्ग्र्त स्ट्रीम को हटा दिया गया है ।
  • इस नीति मैं छात्रो को गहन सोच की प्रक्रिया पर ध्यान दिया जाएगा ।
  • एक अंतराष्ट्रीय भाषा को पड़ना भी अनिवार्य होगा।
नयी शिक्षा नीति मैं स्नातक स्तर की पढ़ाई ।

इस नीति मैं अब भारत सरकार ने स्नातक स्तर की पढ़ाई को 5 साल से घटा कर केवल 4 वर्ष का कर दिया है , तथा अब इसमे चारो वर्षो अलग अलग सूची मैं बाट दिया गया है ।
स्नातक स्तर की पढ़ाई मैं नयी शिक्षा नीति के अनुसार अब आप अपनी पढ़ाई अगर किसी कारण वश आधे वर्षो मैं ही छोद्द देगे तो आपको वही तक का प्रमाण पत्र दिया जाएगा। तथा इस नीति मैं यह विकल्प भी रखा गया है की अगर छात्र जिस वर्ष ने उसने अपनी पढ़ाई छोड़ दी थी वह उसी वर्ष से अपनी पढ़ाई, फिर से प्रवेश लेके उसी वर्ष से शुरू कर सकता है ।


स्नातक स्तर की 4 वर्षो का चरण इस प्रकार होगा ।

पहले वर्ष मैं आपको परीक्षा पास करने पर सर्टिफिकेट दिया जाएगा ।
दूसरे वर्ष मैं आपको डिप्लोमा दिया जाएगा ।
तीसरे वर्षं मैं आपको डिग्री तथा उसे रोजगार दिया जाएगा ।
चौथे वर्ष मैं आपको रिसर्च विषय मैं रखा जाएगा ।

स्नातकोर की पढ़ाई नयी शिक्षा के अंदर ।

अगर आप अपनी स्नातक की पढ़ाई चार वर्ष की करता है उसे स्नातक कोर की पढ़ाई केवल 1 वर्ष की की करनी होगी ।अगर आपने स्नातक की पढ़ाई केवल 3 वर्षो तक की है उसे 2 साल की स्नातकोर की पढ़ाई करनी पड़ेगी ।

नयी शिक्षा नीति की कुछ खूबिया ।

इस नीति मैं बच्चो की रुचियो को देखते और समझते हुए बनाया गया है , तथा साथ ही बच्चो को स्कूल से लगाव तथा अनेक प्रकार की बातो का ध्यान रखा गया है जिनसे बच्चा स्कूल से मन नहीं चुराएगा , तथा उसे 3 वर्ष की आयु से ही स्कूल मैं दाखिला दिला दिया जाएगा जिसके कारण उसकी रुचि घर से जादा स्कूल मैं होगी ।
नयी शिक्षा नीति मैं हर छ महीने मैं परीक्षा ली जाएगी जिसके चलते छात्रो को अपनी पढ़ाई याद रखने मैं काफी हद तक आसानी होगी ।

नयी शिक्षा नीति के अंदर भारत सरकार ने जीडीपी का 6 परसेंट हिस्सा रखा है , ताकि देश के बच्चो का भविष्य उज्ज्वल तथा कामयाब बन सके ।

सभी सरकारी तथा प्राइवेट स्कूल को पहले ही आदेश दिया जाएगा की आप अपनी एक फीस तय करे एक निश्चित समय पर बार बार फीस नहीं ली जाएगी ।

इस नीति के चलते भारत सरकार ने पूरे विश्व की सबसे ऊचे दर्जे की 50 विश्वविधालयों को भारत मैं आकार अपने स्कूल खोलने को कहा है , जिसमे ऑक्सफोर्ड , हवार्ड तथा अनेक प्रकार के स्कूल शामिल होगे .

Biography of Dr Zakir Hussain

Biography of Dr Zakir Hussain

Who was Dr. Zakir Hussain?

Dr. Zakir Hussain was born 9th February 1897, in Hyderabad. He dedicated his entire life for regeneration of education. By conviction he was secular and believed in Gandhi’s principles. He followed the noble objects if nationalism.

Zakir Hussain was the 3rd president of Bharat. He was not only a good politician, also a great reformer. After passing his matriculation from Etawah, after that he joined Aligarh Muslim University for higher education. There he passed M.A. and L.L.B. he was a very keen and talented student. as an achievements speaker, he won many important debates. He was also for some time, the vice president of the students union.

Early Life

Under Gandhiji influence, he obedient his life to the nation. Due to his efforts Jamia Milia, was recognized in Delhi in 1920. With the cooperation of an English friend, he went to Europe for specialization and stayed in Germany for three years. He studied literature and philosophy in the University of Berlin, Germany.

He prints many investigate papers in Economics, and were awarded the degree of Ph.D. by the University of Berlin. Later on, he was awarded (Honoriscausa) the degree of D.Litt. by universities of Berlin, Cairo (Egypt), Delhi, Kolkata, Aligarh and Allahabad.

Dr. Zakir Hussain had been pledged to education for his whole. His addiction for the education was full of life. He was vice chancellor of Jamia Milia for 22 years (1926-1948). He eradicated the feeling of high and low amid the teachers. Under his leadership Jamia Milia gained that much of fame that Mahatma Gandhi got admitted his son Dev Das in that institution.

Via Dr. Zakir Hussain

Our country does not need streams of boiling blood coming out from necks of young men, but needs the all the year round flowing rivers of panic of the brows. Dr Zakir Hussain supposed that politics was an unnecessary burden of the country. ‘We need work, silent and real work.

The future of our country can be made or married under the farmer’s protected log cabin, the worker’s roof blackened with smoke and under that shed roof of the village school, and here our future will be decided for centuries to come.

At places like this decisions can be made only of political conferences and of the day to day disputes of the Congress men. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru got Dr. Zakir Hussain a member of the Rajya Sabha in 1957, while was a member of the Rajya Sabha, he was appointed Rajyapal of Bihar much against his wishes.

Legacy of Hussain

Zakir Hussain was also prearranged vice president of India in 1962. It was a matter of honour for our Republic to have educationists on both the highest posts. In keeping with the bighearted ideals of secularism and patriotism.

Dr. Zakir Hussain was elected president of India in 1967. To have an educationist on its highest post was a great occasion for the country, 1963; government of Bharat honoured him by conferring ‘Bharat Ratna’.

Zakir Sahab’s hobby was gardening and collection of colored stones and pieces of art. Rose was his favorite flower very few people know Dr. Zakir Hussain as a lover of literature art and games. He was not only a lover of literature, but also a literary person.

Death

On 3rd May, 1967, Dr. Zakir Hussain died of heart attack. On his sudden death, the entire country was overwhelmed with grief. Great educationists and national leaders, while him tributes called him a man basically an educationists.

Dr. Zakir Hussain well thought-out children as a spark of light in darkness. He often said, Our country may progress and the country be wealthy – for this we should first of all pay attention to the education of children and treat them honour and give them proper education who knows some of them may turn out be Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru and Rabindra Nath.

What is NRC ? | राष्ट्रीय नागरिक रजिस्टर क्या है ?

राष्ट्रीय नागरिक रजिस्टर क्या है ?

राष्ट्रीय नागरिक रजिस्टर क्या है ? What is NRC? NRC Bill Kya Hai?

राष्ट्रीय नागरिक रजिस्टर के अंदर केवल वह व्यक्ति भारत का नागरिक माना जाएगा जो 24 मार्च 1971 से पहले भारत मैं आकार शरण ले चुके है। तथा उन्हे अपनी नागरिकता सरकार के सामने साबित करनी पड़ेगी । के वह कब से भारत मैं मैं रह रहे है ।

राष्ट्रीय नागरिक रजिस्टर इसकी जरूरत क्यू पड़ी ये क्यू लाया जाएगा ?

आसान शब्दो मैं, इस बात को आपको समझना पड़ेगा, सन 1971 मैं बांग्लादेश की स्थापना हुई। इसका निर्माण होने से पहले बंगालदेश पूर्वी पाकिस्तान के नाम से जाना जाता था । 3 दिसम्बर 1971 के दोरान भारत और पाकिस्तान के युद्ध की शुरुआत हुई, मुख्य पाकिस्तान पूर्वी पाकिस्तान के लोगो के साथ बहुत हे क्रूर तरीके से पूर्वी पाकिस्तान के लोगो को परताड़ित किया करता था ।

जब पूर्वी पाकिस्तान के लोगो ने अपना अलग देश बनाने की बात कही तो पाकिस्तान ने उनके ऊपर हमला कर दिया तथा पूर्वी पाकिस्तान की औरतों के साथ सरे आम बलात्कार किया तथा लोगो को ज़िंदा जला दिया । उसी दोरान पूर्वी पाकिस्तान के लोग भारी संख्या मैं असम की और जाकर शरण ले ली , अनुमान था की करीब 5 करोड़ लोग बंगालदेश के लोग असम मैं घुस आए थे ।

बंगालदेश से भारी संख्या मैं आए हुए लोगो का असम निवासियों ने पुरजोर विरोध किया तथा आंदोलन पर उतर आए उस आंदोलन को असम आंदोलन का नाम दिया गया जिसकी अवधि 1979-1985 तक चली , यह आंदोलन असम के छात्र संगठनो ने शुरू किया था जिसे असम यूनियन का नाम दिया गया

असम समझोता क्या था ? What is Assam Accord?

1985 के दोरान एक समझोता तय किया गया जिसका नाम असम समझोता था, जो बंगालदेश के लोग 24 मार्च 1971 से पहले असम मैं आए है केवल उन्हे ही देश का नागरिक माना जाएगा। लेकिन इस समझोते का सही तरह से पालन नहीं हो पाया। बांग्लादेश के लोग लगातार असम मैं शरण लेते रहे।

राष्ट्रीय नागरिक रजिस्टर 2013 क्या था ? What is National Register of Citizenship?

असम समझोते के असफल होने के बाद उच्चतम न्यायलय ने एक फेसला लिया जिसके अंदर यह बात रखी गयी के जो लोग 24 मार्च 1971 से पहले भारत मैं प्रवेश कर चुके है तथा जो असम के मूल निवासी है , उन सबके नाम का एक राष्ट्रीय नागरिक रजिस्टर, तैयार करे जिन जिन लोगो का नाम उस रजिस्टर मैं होगा केवल उसे ही भारत का नागरिक माना जाएगा । इसी आधार पर राष्ट्रीय नागरिक रजिस्टर तैयार किया गया।

लेकिन इस रजिस्टर के डाटा मैं काफी सारी गलतिया पायी गयी, इस रजिस्टर के अंतरगर्त लगभग 20 लाख लोगो का नाम इस रजिस्टर मैं नहीं था , जिसमे से लगभग 14 लाख लोग असम के ही मूल निवासी थे तथा 12 लाख लोग हिन्दू धर्मो के लोग थे बाकी बचे हुए अन्य धर्मो के लोग थे ।

इसके बाद भारत सरकार ने नया फेसला लिया तथा असम के लोगो से कहा गया की अगर आप असम की निवासी है तो आपको साबित करना होगा तथा 24 मार्च 1971 के पहले का कोई भी मान्य कागज दिखाना होगा जिस से यह साबित हो सके की आप असम तथा भारत के ही निवासी है।

असम मैं नागरिकता साबित करने के लिए कौन सा दस्तावेज़ मान्य है ?

भाग – 01
आपका नाम राष्ट्रीय नागरिक रजिस्टर 1951 मैं होने का प्रमाण
मतदान सूची तथा मतदान कार्ड
जमीनी दस्तावेज़
नागरिकता प्रमाण
स्थायी पता
शरणार्थी पंजीकरण प्रमाण पत्र
पासपोर्ट वर्ष 1951
जीवन बीमा निगम
सरकारी कार्यकरणी के दस्तावेज़
बैंक खाता
जन्म प्रमाण पत्र
स्कूल के कोई दस्तावेज़ या प्रमाण पत्र
अदालत संबंधी दस्तावेज़ कोई मुकदमा
और कोई भी ऐसा दस्तावेज़ जो आपकी नागरिकता साबित कर सके ।

अगर आप भाग एक मैं अपनी नागरिकता साबित नहीं कर पाते तो आपको भाग 2 भी विकल्प दिया जाएगा

भाग 2 की सूची के अंतर्ग्र्त आप अपने माता पिता के दस्तावेज़ दिखा सकते है ।

माता पिता का जन्म प्रमाण पत्र
माता पिता का स्कूल संबंधी दस्तावेज़
बैंक खाता
मतदान कार्ड
ग्राम पंचायत का दस्तावेज़
भोजन सामाग्री सूची
कोई अन्य दस्तावेज़

इन दोनों भाग के दस्तावेज़ साबित करने के बाद भी आपका नाम नागरिक सूची मैं आपका नाम नहीं आया तो आपको एक ओर विकल्प मिलेगा जिसमे आपको 120 दिन की समय अवधि मिलेगी जिसमे आप अपने दस्तावेज़ उच्चतम न्यायलय मैं जाकर आप अपनी नागरिकता साबित कर सकते है । तथा जो नागरिक अपनी नागरिकता साबित नहीं कर पाये तो सरकार उन्हे नजरबंदी केंद्र मैं डाला जाएगा ।


निष्कर्ष :-

असम मैं एक नजरबंदी केंद्र की लागत थी 46 करोड़ , तथा जब भारत सरकार पूरे भारत मैं इस प्रक्रिया का पालन करेगी तो सरकारी आकड़ों के अनुसार 10 से 12 लाख लोग भारत की नागरिकता साबित नहीं कर पाएगे , तथा उन सब लोगो को नजरबंदी केंद्र मैं रखा जाएगा , आप अनुमान लगा सकते है की असम मैं NRC की प्रक्रिया की लागत 1300 करोड़ थी तथा सरकार पूरे देश मैं इस प्रक्रिया की लागत कितनी होगी।
हमारे अनुसार जो लोग भारत की नागरिकता तथा बंगलादेशी होगे उन्हे उनके देश भेजना एक अच्छा विचार रहेगा ।

नागरिक संशोधन अधिनियम क्या है ? | What is CAA ?

नागरिक संशोधन अधिनियम लाने की जरूरत क्यू पड़ी ?

यह अधिनियम 1955 से चला आ रहा है , इस अधिनियम को जान ने से पहले हमे थोड़ा भारतिए इतिहास के कुछ पिछले दोर मैं जाना होगा जिन समस्यों के कारण ही भारत सरकार इस नागरिक संशोधन अधिनियम को जारी करने जा रही है ।

भारत सरकार के अनुसार भारत के अंदर बहुत से लोग लोग गेर भारतिए है तथा अनेक राज्यो से आकार भारत मैं शरण लेकर अपना निवास कर चुके है

नागरिक संशोधन अधिनियम क्या है ? | What is CAA ?

जो शरणार्थी भारत मैं आए है उनका डाटा इस प्रकार है ।

12 वी सदी के दोरान काफी भारी संख्या मैं पारसी भारत मैं आए थे , क्यूकी 12 सदी के दोरान पारसी तथा शियाओ की कुछ आपसी मतभेदो के कारण उनके बीच जान लेवा झगड़े चालू हो गए थे । जिसके कारण कई पारसी भारत मैं भाग कर आ गए थे तथा आज भी यही निवास कर रहे है ।

1947 भारत विभाजन के समय भी काफी बड़े पेमाने पर पाकिस्तान के मुस्लिम समाज के लोग तथा अनेक धर्मो तथा देश के लोगो को भारत मैं विलय कर लिया गया था ।

1959 के दोरान चीन ने तिब्बत पर कब्जा कर वहा के लोगो पर अत्याचार किए जिस से बचने के लिए तिब्बत के लोग अपनी जान बचा कर भारत आए, दलाई लामा उनमे से एक थे।

1971 मैं पाकिस्तान ने पूर्वी पाकिस्तान पर जुल्म करना शुरू कर दिया था काफी बड़ी संख्या मैं पाकिस्तान के लोगो ने पूर्वी पाकिस्तान की औरतों के साथ बलात्कार किए तथा लोगो को ज़िंदा जला दिया गया जिसके कारण पूर्वी पाकिस्तान के लोग अपनी जान बचा कर भारत मैं शरण लेली।

जिसके कारण श्रीमति इन्दिरा गांधी ने एक संगठन का निर्माण किया जिसका नाम मुक्ति वाहिनी था, यह संगठन पूर्वी पाकिस्तान के लोगो की रक्षा करने के लिए बनाया गया था, पूर्वी पाकिस्तान जो आज बांग्लादेश कहलाता है वहा के लोग अपनी जान बचा के भारत मैं आकार बस गए।

1979 मैं सोवियत संघ रूस के हमले से बचने के लिए अफगानिस्तान के लोगो ने भारत मैं आकार शरण ली थी

म्यामार मैं रोहींग्यों मुसलमानो ने वहा के लोगो पर अत्याचार किया जिसके कारण वहा के लोग 2015 मैं भारत आकार अपनी जान बचाई
1980 -1990 के दोरान तामिल समस्या के दोरान काफी बड़े पेमाने पर वहा के लोग भारत मैं आए।

नागरिक संशोधन अधिनियम क्या है ? What is the Citizenship Amendment Act.

What is CAA ? नागरिक संशोधन अधिनियम के अंदर भारत सरकार का कहना है जो लोग भारत मैं बंगालदेश, अफगानिस्तान, तथा पाकिस्तान से आए हुए अल्पसंखक लोगो को 2014 से पहले आकार बस चुके है उन्हे भारत का नागरिक घोषित किया जाएगा परंतु इसमे केवल हिन्दू, जैन, बोध, सीख, ईसाई के लोगो को भारत की नागरिकता प्रदान की जाएगी ।

नागरिक संशोधन अधिनियम के अंदर केवल कुछ धर्मो को क्यू रखा गया है ?

भारत सरकार के अनुसार बांग्लादेश, अफगानिस्तान तथा पाकिस्तान मैं इन सभी धर्मो की बहुत की कम संख्या है जिन्हे अल्पसंखयक के श्रेणी मैं रखा है तथा इन धर्मो के लोगो को मानसिक तथा धार्मिक अत्याचार झेलना पड़ रहा है। इसी काराण इन अल्पसंख्यक लोगो को भारत मैं , भारत की नागरिकता दी जाएगी ।

निष्कर्ष :-

भारत सरकार द्वारा काफी ही अच्छा अधिनियम लाया गया है , हम इसे आसान शब्दो मैं मैं समझे तो इसमे केवल जो लोग 2014 से पहले भारत मैं आए है केवल उन्हे भारत की नागरिकता दी जाएगी तथा वह भारत के पूर्ण तरह भारतिए नागरिक कहलाएगे ।
भारत सरकार ने अनुसार केवल पाकिस्तान, बांग्लादेश, तथा अफगानिस्तान देशो को ही इस अधिनियम क्यू रखा गया है ? भारत सरकार के अनुसार केवल इन तीनों देशो मैं अल्पसंख्यक लोगो के ऊपर अधिक अत्याचार किया जा है।

राष्ट्रिय जनसंख्या रजिस्टर क्या है ? What is National Population Register?

इस अधिनियम के अंतर्ग्र्त भारत सरकार यह सुनिश्चित करना चाहती है की , देश का निवासी इस समय कहा निवास कर रहा है तथा क्या करता है, तथा आपके पिता की जन्म तिथि सुनिश्चित करी जाएगी के आप लोग कितने साल से भारत के निवासी है। उसी आधार पर आपको राष्ट्रिय जनसंख्या रजिस्टर के अंतर्ग्र्त रखा जाएगा।
इस अधिनियम की कुल लागत 4 हज़ार करोड़ है ।

Father of Indian Space Research Dr. Vikram Sarabhai

Who was Dr. Vikram Sarabhai?

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai was born on 12th August, 1919, the day of Gaurun Pnachami, to Sri Amba Lal Sarabhai, famous business man and industrialist. His mother’s name was Smt. Sarala Devi. Child Sarabhai had initial Education at home, under the guidance of his mother. A school was opened at home for this purpose.

Father of Indian Space Research Dr Vikram Sarabhai

In his school specialist teachers taught language, science, arts, gardening, technical education etc. there was a separate teacher for every subject out of them three held the degree of Ph.D and had training in Europe. Laboratory facility was also available in the school.

Gurudeva Rabindra Nath Tagore had selected an artist for this school who taught dancing. Thus this school provided to child Vikram good accompaniments, and also was a place of full development.

Rabindaranth Tagore Known As ‘Gurudev’Besides the effect of the school atmosphere he had effect of contacts with great personalities, who visited his father, such as Gurudeva Rabindra Nath Tagore, Pandit Motilal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi, Sarojni Nayadu, C.V.Raman, Jawaharlal Nehru etc. since his baby hood he was gifted and brave.

What are Interests of Sarabhai?

Dr. Sarabhai had great attachments with ancient Indian culture and archaeology. He had deep interest also in culture, painting and photography. He started an institution named Darpan to enable the artists to get training and make inventions in free atmosphere.

The Director of this Institution was Dr. Sarabhai’s wife Smt Mrinalini Sarabhai, who herself was a famous dancer. Dr. Sarabhai was of the view that the scientists should always busy with research, but at the same time they would not neglect their social duties.

In 1975-76 must go to Dr. Sarabhai. The object of which was to take education to 50 lacs of Indians, living in 2400 villages. His dream of rural of development of Education and Agriculture through television has come true.

Early Life and Education

Sarabhai was joined to Gujarat College, Ahmedabad. Thereafter, he went to join St. John’s College of Cambridge (London) and passed from there tripod exam in Physical Science.

He was of 20 years only then. On return to India, he did research for two years on cosmic rays under the guidance of the great scientist and recipient of Nobel Prize, Sir C.V. Raman in Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Here he met Dr. Homi Jahangeer Bhabha was doing great research in Space Rays and Meson.

Dr. Sarabhai did research of very high on Space Science and Atomic Physics, Dr. Sarabhai’s many research papers were published in Physical review, Nature, Physical Society of London, Journals of Geophysical Research, Astrophysics Journal, Proceeding of the Academy of Sciences and Proceedings of the Royal Society, London.

Cosmic Rays Discovery

Dr. Sarabhai’s first inventions paper was published in 1942 in a research magazine, Bangalore, which related to changes in speed of Cosmic Rays. In 1943, at the age of only 23 years he went to Kashmir for make a study of Cosmic Rays on hilly places. There he had the idea of opening a research centre at such a high altitude.

Vikram Sarabhai went to again to Cambridge in 1945. He got the degree of Ph.D. from there in 1947. He did research work in the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge as well. Sarabhai return from England, he established Physical Research Laboratory in Ahmedabad.

This institution in dutiful to the study of Cosmic Rays and Outer Space. Dr. Sarabhai was Director of Physical Research Lab in Ahmedabad from 1947 to 1965. With hard labour and attachment he was successfully in giving impetus to the scientific programmes and developing them. He established such centres also in Thiruanant Puram and Kodai Kanal.

How Sarabhai Became a Father of Indian Space Research?

Dr. Sarabhai is called the father of Indian Space Research. During period 1962, Dr. Sarabhai was given the responsibility of Space Research and its development. He was president of the Committee formed for Space Research. Dr. Sarabhai approved the country to the space age, by increasing the Space Research Organization (ISRO).

The credit of achievement of India in Space technology goes to Dr. Sarabhai. Dr. Sarabhai was also the father of Rohini and Menaka Rockets chain of India. Among the projects initiated by Dr. Sarabhai, was also the project, under which the satellite Aryabhata was propel hooked on Space in 1975.

The Cosmic Rays are the currents of energy which come to be the earth from space. Before reaching the earth, they are affected by the sun the atmosphere and appeal; they are also affected by the events which take place in the planets. Dr. Sarabhai had experienced at an early age that study of Cosmic Rays will help in understanding the nature of space magnetism, atmosphere and the sun, and also the outer space.

Legacy of Sarabhai and Accomplishments

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai was also become the President of Indian Science Congress in 1962. Till 1966, he was Director of several companies in the private sector. From 1962 to 1965, he was Director of Indian Institute of Management. In 1966, he was appointed the Secretary of the Department of Atomic Energy and Chairman of Atomic Energy Commission.

Sarabhai did venerable work as a member of the Executive Committee of Planning Commission. Besides these, he was member of Central Education Advisory Board Senate Gujarat University. Dr. Vikram Sarabhai was honoured with man of Indian Academy of Sciences, National Institute of Sciences of India, Physical Society London and Cambridge Philosophical Society.

Sarabhai also honoured with Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award for Physics in 1962. For his contribution of high order, the Government of India awarded him the decoration Padma Bhushan in 1966. In 1968, he was President of United Nations Conference on peaceful uses of outer space.

In 1970, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai was the President of the Fourteenth international Conference on Atomic Energy. In 1971, he was Vice-President of the fourth conference on the peaceful uses of Atomic Energy.

Death of Sarabhai

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai is a son of India, and also a great scientist, while on way to Thumba Rocket Launching Centre disappeared into the five elements on 30th December, 1971. The Government of India paid tributes to Dr. Sarabhai, the father of Indian Space Research, by telecasting a serial on television, based on ‘Sudoor Samvedan’, on the 12th August, 1993, the day of his 72nd birthday.

Why Farmers are Protesting

किसान आंदोलन क्यू कर रहा है ?

Why Farmers are Protesting भारत सरकार ने द्वारा जून 2020 मई 3 कृषि कानून लाने का फेसला लिया , भारत सरकार के अनुसार ये कानून किसानो की रोज़मर्रा की जिंदगी मैं सुधार लाएगे तथा किसानो को अपनी इच्छा अनुसार अपनी फसल को अच्छे दाम पर बेकने मैं आसानी होगी ।

 Why Farmers are Protesting

तीनों कृषि कानून का नाम क्या है ?

1 आवश्यक वस्तु अधिनियम
2 मूल्य आश्वशन पर बंदोबस्त ओर सुरक्षा समझोता
3 कृषि उत्पाद व्यापार ऑर वाणीज्य

आवशयक वस्तु अधिनियम क्या है ?

इस कानून के अंदर सरकार ने किसानो तथा व्यापारियो को भंडारण की अनुमति प्रदान की है साल 1955 मैं भारत सरकार द्वारा इस कानून पर रोक लगा दी गयी थी तथा भंडारण करने करने वालो को दोषी माना जाएगा तथा दंड के भोगी होगे ।


आवशयक वस्तु अधिनियम की जरूरत क्यू पड़ती है ?

इस कानून के अंतर्ग्र्त किसान व बड़े व्यापारी अब भंडारण कर सकते है , लेकिन भंडारण की अनुमति केवल किसी आपदा तथा युद्ध मैं भंडरण की अनुमति नहीं है। किसान भी इस कानून मैं अब अपनी फसल का भंडारण कर सकते है तथा अपने मन चाहे मूल्य पर किसी भी व्यापारी को बेक सकता है।

मूल्य आश्वशन पर बंदोबस्त ओर सुरक्षा समझोता

इस कानून के अंदर सरकार किसानो की अनुबंध कृषि तथा सुरक्षा प्रदान करने की बात कही गयी है । किसान अब अपनी फसल बोने से पहले ही अपनी फसल का दाम किसी भी मंडी तथा किसी भी बड़े व्यापारी के साथ अनुबंध मूल्य तय कर सकता है ।इस कानून के अंदर सरकार ने अब किसानो को आजादी प्रदान की है अपनी फसल को अपने अनुसार मूल्य तथा जगह पर बेक सकता है ।


मूल्य अश्वशन क्या है ?

मूल्य आश्वशन के अंदर बड़े व्यापारी जिन्हे बड़े पेमाने पर गेहु , चावल , तथा अन्य प्रकार की फसल चाहिए होती है , अब वह सीधा किसानो से संपर्क कर सकेगे तथा किसान ओर व्यापारी एक दूसरे की सहमति से मूल्य का मोल भाव भी कर सकेगे ।


सुरक्षा समझोता क्या है ?

भारत सरकार ने सुरक्षा समझोता मंडी के अधिकारियों को दिया है। अगर किसी भी प्रकार की समस्या किसानो तथा व्यापारियो को एक दूसरे के बीच कुछ विवाद होगा तो उसे मंडी के अधिकारियों के अंतरग्रत सुलझाया जाएगा ।

कृषि उत्पाद व्यापार ओर वाणिज्य क्या है ?

इस कानून के अंदर भारत सरकार ने किसानो को पूर्ण आजादी प्रदान का मकसद है , इसमे किसान अपनी फसल को सीधा व्यापारी को बेक सकता है , तथा मंडी के अंदर भी किसानो को पूरी आज़ादी रहेगी वह अपनी फसल को कहा ओर केसे बेकना चाहते है ।

व्यापार करने के लिए किसान अब इस कानून के अनुसार अब अपना राज्य छोड़ के किसी अनेक राज्य के व्यापारी तथा मंडी मैं सीधा जाके अपनी फसल को अच्छे दामो पर बेक सकता है साथ ही वह अपनी फसल को किसी ऑनलाइन तरीके का प्रयास करके भी बेक सकता है ।भारत सरकार के अनुसार इस कानून के आने की वजहे से मंडी के बीच जो अड़ती तथा बिचोलियों का खात्मा हो जाएगा तथा किसान पूरी तरह से आजाद हो जाएगा।

न्यनतम समर्थन मूल्य क्या है ? what is the MSP ?

इस प्रक्रिया के अंतर्ग्र्त देश की सरकार अपने देश के किसानो की फसल का एक सही मूल्य तय करती है ओर किसानो को आश्वशन देती है की हम आपकी फसल एक निश्चित मूल्य पर आपसे खरीदेगे। जेसा की मूल्य आश्वशन पर बंदोबस्त ओर सुरक्षा समझोता कानून के अंतर्ग्र्त बाहरी फर्म्स के साथ एक अनुबंध मूल्य तय करती है।

किसान विद्रोह क्यू कर रहा है ? तथा उनकी मांग क्या है ?

किसानो का आंदोलन का मुख्य कारण यह है की किसान चाहता है की भारत सरकार न्यनतम समर्थन मूल्य पर किसानो को कानून प्रदान करे की , सरकार तथा कोई भी अनेक बाहरी व्यापारी एक तय मूल्य से नीचे किसान की फसल को नहीं खरीद पाएगा । तथा अगर कोई व्यापारी ऐसा करता पाया गया तो वह दंड का भोगी होगा ।

किसानो का कहना है अनुबंध कानून के अंदर कुछ संशोधन होने चाहिए ।

किसानो के अनुसार अनुबंध कानून के अंदर से जो अधिकार सरकार ने मंडी के अधिकारियों को दिये है , वह कानून या तो सरकार के पास रहे तथा किसानों की मुखिया को वह सब शक्ति प्रदान की जाये ।अनुबंध कृषि कानून के अंदर किसानो का कहना है की अगर कोई व्यापारी एक मूल्य तय कर उसकी फसल को लेने का अनुबंध करता है किसान के साथ तथा बाद मैं मना कर देता है , या किसी आपदा की वजहे से व्यापारी की फर्म बंद हो जाती है या वह भाग जाता है तो उसकी फसल को जो नुकसान होगा उसका जिम्मेदार कौन होगा ।

Biography of Jyotiba Phule

Who was Mahatma Jyotirao Phule?

Jyotiba Phule was born on 28th April, 1827 in Govind Rao’s family in a backward area in Pune. At a very early age, he became aware of the common evil customs, as evil traditions in the name of religion, hypocrisies, untouchbility etc. He studied carefully the ideas of his ancestor social reforms, especially in respect of hypocrisies and less traditions, sanctioned by the Brahmans, against whom he stood in revolution.

Biography of Jyotiba Phule

Jyotiba Phule was the first person in contemporary Indian history that awakened awareness in the exploited depressed classes and the helpless women. Mahatma Phule established the first school for the untouchables. He was the first Indian social radical to open a school in 1848 for girls. It is also a twist of fate that his wife Smt. Savitri Bai gathered courage to become the first female teacher under these odd conditions.

She had to face great opposition. That childless woman of strong courage adopted with pleasure the son a widow name Kashik Bai, and brought up him. The widow on a being a victim of somebody’s desire was prepared to commit suicide but Jyotiba Phule behavior, made him her mind change, and she took refuge in orphanage.

Untouchbility Context

Phule’s childhood, as made him think, why the untold members of the depressed classes were given barbarous treatment in the name of God and religion? What is the good manners behind the classifying a child birth as Brahman or a schedule caste? On what basis, the new born child becomes a Hindu, Muslim, Sikh or Christian, when he has no knowledge of religion and has no faith in it? All such questions made him skeptic books on religion.

Such as Vedas, Puranas, Manusmriti, Mahabharat, Ramayan etc. He was full of anger and hatred for the Brahmans, who indulged in hypocrisy in the name of religious rituals. He felt, through has life, the indelible effect of insults which he had to suffer in the marriage party of his of his Brahman friend in childhood. His heart cried on the designed atrocities on the depressed class in the name of casteism and the climax of shocking behavior towards helpless women.

Early life

Against traditions, full of evil social customs and hypocrisies, a chain of great persons – Raja Ram Mohan Rai, Gopal Krishna, Mahadeva Govind Ranade, Keshawa Chandra, Professor Karve, Dayanand Saraswati, Lok Manya Tilak, and others – waged war. In this series of great personalities shines the name, of social change of Maharashtra, Mahatma Jyoti Rao Phule. In his time, the inhuman and barbarous customs like worship of non-living objects, untouchbility, casteism, feelings of high and low, inhuman treatment with women, cruelty on child-widows etc.

The depressed and the untouchbility found it difficult to breathe freely. Open sex-exploitation of the child widows openly by the prosperous upper class people was an everyday event. To become a widow was both unfortunate and a curse.

During 19th Century

Before the social changes of the 19th centuries, many issues were there. The Hindu society was conservative and prey of blind faiths. As it was, India had been under subjugation for long. It was much behind the modern scientific researches of the English Community.

Three things specially jeered at it, first one is civilization and blind faiths and second is Assaults and scorns by the Christian missionaries and last is growing non-belief due to English mentality.

The point under consideration was that the wealth and freedom of that country and society were bound to beg off, which were divided into many sections and castes, such as Brahmans, Rajputs, Kayasthas, Kurmis, untouchable etc.

While man had ceased to be man, and each community, branding the learned persons as fools, persons of good character as devotees of the different community, and in contrast had just the opposite yardsticks in renown of person of their community, calling a fool a learned person, and the sinner a virtuous person.

Legacy of Phule

The name of Ranade, Gokhale and Tilak are noteworthy amongst social reformers of Maharashtra during that period. They were known throughout the country, because they were connected with the national stream.

But the names of Sri Agarkar and Mahatma Phule remained confined to their province (now State). Even then their services to the social reformation and women upliftment in the transition period will always be remembered”.

Mahatma Phule died on 28th November 1890, and over hundred years- 113 years have passed since his death. But how unfortunate it is that evil customs like women exploitation, dowry, casteism and neglect of the depressed are still alive in India.

Biography of Hemant Mukherjee

Who was Hemant Mukherjee?

Hemant Mukherjee, the star of the world was born on 16th June, 1920 in a Bengali family of Benaras (now Varanasi). His father was an ordinary clerk, and mother – sensitive family lady. He was born in poverty and grew up among limitations, but with his notes of music, he reached that height which he had never thinks of.

Biography of Hemant Mukherjee

He was so shy by nature that whenever he wanted anything from his father, he asked his mother to get it him and mother tried to get his demand satisfied. He had great love for music from his childhood. He was overjoyed or intoxicated with music almost every moment. One day, he was turned out of the class in Mitra School because he was humming music in the class room.

Professional Context

Hemant Mukherjee, the uncrowned kind of the music world, and lovingly called Hemant Da departed forever on the night of 26th September. 1989, and with it, the voice of music has become feeble. In his voice was magical attraction, whose every part of the body was drenched with music, in whose songs soul of Bharat and in notes the pride of Bharat were reflected.

His tones were over enjoyed in singing the songs of nationalist. His voice had supernatural magnetism. His every step was on a rhythm of music. It will not be a hyperbole to say about him that his routine daily life was full of music. In one word Hemant Da lived music.

Early Life

On account of these qualities, he ruled over the hearts of lovers of music for regarding forty years. Corers of people of the country were enamoured of his captivating music as the name of Dhyan Chand, the hockey wizard, is famous so his name will be remembered for centuries as a music charmer. No doubt, the Rabindra Sangeet Mandal was honoured by his grandeur. Expressing sorrow at the death of this great personality, Jyoti Basu, the then chief minister of West- Bengal said’ in his death, the nation has suffered a beyond patch up loss.

In lessons of time, his family shifted from to Varanasi to Bengal. His father had the aspiration of making him an engineer. Therefore, he got his admitted in the engineering course in Jadavapur university of Bengal. Here, his love for music increased all the more. On account of love for music, he could not pay due consideration to his studies, and leaving the engineering, he caught up himself in music.

First Song by Hemant

At the age of 15 years, he sang his first song at the radio and began his journey in music in public life. Hearing his song, his parents and connections were highly happy. Those days the names of Pankaj Malik, R.C. Boral and Kundan Lal Sehagal were over shadowing the world of music, the Bangala film ‘Nimayi Sanyas’ proved a milestone for him. A song sung by him made him famous all over the country.
Hemant delightful voice enchanted the people. Having worked for some time as an assistant of Hari Prasanna Das. He gave for the first time an independent music programme in the film ‘Purva Raag’ in 1945. The film ‘Priya’ added to his fame.

Anandmatha

The next step of Hemant Mukherjee’s life began when he was called by Hemant Gupta to Bombay, for composing music for the film ‘Anandmatha’. After singing ‘Vandemataram’ for the first time in the Hindi film Anandmatha, he never looked back.

In 1951, he joined Filmistan. The credit of success of the film ‘Nagin’ in 1954 was given to songs of Hemant Mukherjee. And now, he was at the top of progress. He slowly but surely earned reputation as a singer besides being a musician.

His name will always be in the forefront among those persons who touched great heights through sheer labour. He got poverty in heritage but struggling with it, he joined the world of great musicians.

Autobiography

In his auto bio ‘Anand Dhara’, he has written, “We were very poor. My father was an ordinary clerk in school, I was charged concessional tuition fee. After leaving college, I had to do tuition for meetings my pocket expenses.

In the beginning, only two girls came to learn music from me. But when four records of music came in the market, my music from me. But when four records of my music came in the market , my fame increased, and I began to get more tuition’s ‘ Having been brought up in poverty, through my labour and devotion, reached the top, but he never lost touch of the ground.

Accomplishments

During 1987, the ornament of Padamshree was offered to him by the central government, for his expensive role in the field of music, he declined it saying ‘it is too late now’. The award which was offered to him is much late, even after many junior artists had received it, was rightly declined by him, as by that time, it had lost good manners.

The physical body of this famous play back singer and musician mingled with the earth of Bharat on 26th September, 1989. With his death of powerful tone of music became quiet. Although, Hemant Da is not among us in physical form, yet the notes of music, which he gave to us, will continue deep for the ages to come. He will keep unblemished as the polestar in the outer space of music forever.

Biography of Dr Subrahmanyam Chandra Shekhar

Who was Dr. Subrahmanyam Chandra Shekhar?

Dr. Subrahmanyam Chandra Shekhar was born in Lahore now in India on 19th October, 1910. His family background, on the whole was well-to-do and educated. He had hos whole education-from primary to higher education, in Madras (now Chennai).

Biography of Dr Subrahmanyam Chandra Shekhar

He passed his M.Sc. in Physics, with honours, from Presidency College, Madras in 1930. Afterwards Chandra went to England for upper education and obtained the doctorate degree from Cambridge University.

As recompense in the essay competition held by Madras University, he got the book ‘Internal Construction of Stars” had written by Endington, and became twitchy to meet him. On going to England, Dr. Chandrasekhar contacted Dr. Endington. This opened the way of his contacts with astrophysicist Fouler and others as well.

Early life and Discoveries

After complete their Doctorate degree, he did research work in Trinity College with Dr. Edington for two years. The topic of his research was ‘Stars also take birth; they grow and become did, and ultimately are almost dead.

His research work gained good reputation in the humankind of research. He made for himself a place in the world of astrophysics. Dr. Chandra Shekhar’s hypothesis was that only that star can become White Dwarf whose density is upto fourteen times than of the sun.

During 1953, he adopted American citizenship, and since then, he lived in America. During one of his visits to USA, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru wished-for to him to come back to India, but Dr. Chandrasekhar expressed his in ability.

Dr. Chandrasekhar was a scientist who was always active and eager to know things. He was never satisfied with his achievements. He used to say , I am deeply interested in the contexts of the whole universe.

Stars Theory

He also said that star cannot become White Dwarf mass is more than one and a half times that of sun, that would shrink further, and became an invisible star. This star very great mass is called neutron star. To assess the denseness of this star is very difficult. That is called the many thousands millions of this star are contracted into the size of a match box.

All stars are not alike as their age advances with the time the atomic fuel inside them gets exhausted gradually. The sun is also star. It has been burning for over five thousands millions of years, and giving light to the world.

In respect of the stars a situation arises, when their inner parts goes on contracting and the outer part of countries expending. In that situation, the star gets sufficiently expanded and its brightness increases many more times. When the star reaches this stage this is called Nova.

It is fuel will gradually get exhausted and it would change into a red giant and will be called a Super Nova.Under these conditions our sun after expanding, would became so large that all the planets around it –mercury, Venus etc. will be immersed in it. The earth will follow same path.

Legacy of Dr. Chandershekhar

Dr. Chandrasekhar personality is like philosopher stone which is believed to convert a bottom metal into gold by a mere touch. He edited for some time Astrophysics journal. During that period, he gave to the world of science two of his works Via Principles of Stellar Dynamics and Hydro-magnetism, and Hydro magnetic steadiness. They were very important contributions of Dr. Chandrasekhar to the world of science

Accomplishments

Dr Chandra theory was published in 1939 in book from entitled ‘Introduction for the study of Stellar Structure’. Thereafter, he got busy his research work. In 1936, he with his newly married wife Smt. Lalita went to America. There he worked on many publications.

Research Associate, at the Yankee observatory, Chicago University (1936-38), Assistant professor Chicago University (1942-43) and later on as professor from 1944-47 and from 1952 to the last days of his life as special professor of Theoretical Stellar Physics, Chicago University.

The Government of India gave him the decoration of Padma Bhushan and the Indian National Academy awarded him the Ramanujam Gold Medal. At last in 1989, he was honoured with the highest awarded of the world – the Nobel Prize. As a matter of fact, Nobel Prize should have been given to him much earlier.

Who was Fibonacci Mathematician

Who was Fibonacci? What are they works

Fibonacci was born in 1775, his childhood was known as a block headed to his neighbors. His father’s name was Bobecciyo which mean very simple or foolish. The babyhood and early life of Fibonacci was spent in Bugiya city in North Africa, where his father was in service.

Who was Fibonacci Mathematician

We are discussion regarding of Pissa – The Tower of Pissa known throughout the world for learning Tower of Pissa in the city of Tashkani in the state of Itlay. In Pissa, in 13th century of wizard of Mathematics and numbers was born.

His some of the great performances are besides understanding of many people for 700 years till today. Pissa well-known Fibonacci. His seat of contemplation of Mathematics was the city of Pissa Like Newton and Einstein; Fibonacci did not show signs of future in babyhood. In middle his life Fibonacci rose like a star and made his mark and endless fame in the kingdom of mathematics.

Early Life

Fibonacci was given primary Education by Muslim teachers in Bar Besicost, the Arabic system of numbers soon got into his head to the extent that writing of straight Arabic numbers for example to him was much easier than writing of XCVIII, in Greek system prevalent in that time.

After completing his Initial study, Fibonacci came back to his Pissa city. To get into depths of Mathematics with open heart and mind, he roamed about the roads of the city. He used to keep always in piece of chalk in his pocket, and whenever, anything came to his mind, he used to scrawl some numbers, on the walls around him.

Book of Apex

Fibonacci published his explanation ‘Book of Apex’ in 1202. He was 27 years then. His research paper gets historical importance because of it. Arabic digits were introduced in Europe. There was a sort of turmoil in the world of systematic philosophy.

In the research paper, there was a small chapter, in which a particular was discussed and there was also a solution thereof. That question its discussion, were of great interest to the researches in Mathematics.

The method of solving terms of science and arts. To name a few of them are architecture science of Oceanography Botany Zoology Astronomy and music in other words Fibonacci great inventions in Mathematics left no system of look at it scientific knowledge un-touched.

Counting Discovery

The object was to monitor what the number of hare’s progress becomes the number of hares counting the newly born ones. It was supposed that after two months of birth the hares begin reproducing, and therefore each couple could produce one new pair. At the end of the year the total number of pairs found was 233.

Fibonacci on casting a fleeting look on this record, found that twelve month the order of numbers was 1,2,3,5,8,12,21,34,55,59,144,233, he was surprised to see that after the second number every number was equal to the total of the previous two numbers you can see it for yourself. This order of numbers could go on till infinity but reproductive power of the hares cannot be infinite age limit and partly old age will put a barrier to it.

But let this order of number be infinite. Fibonacci examined the total classes, the numbers were – 354,224,848,261,179,915,075, and in 21 digits in all counting from left (as unit) to the digit, it came 100 millions.