Nelson Mandela

Biography of Karl Friedrich Benz

Biography of Karl Friedrich Benz

Who is Karl Friedrich Benz? School, Education, Childhood, Family, Interests  

Karl Friedrich Benz was a German engineer and entrepreneur, who designed and built the world’s first automobile powered by an internal-combustion engine. Karl Benz was the founder of Mercedes –Benz.

Karl Benz’s real name was Karl Friedrich Michael valiant. He was born on 25th November, 1844 in Germany to Josephine Valliant and Johann George Benz. Karl’s father at a very young age. His family was poor but Karl’s mother provided him with the best education. Karl went to a local grammar school.

He was a great student and worked hard to get a good education. He followed his father’s footsteps and too an interest in automobiles. Later, he attended the Polytechnical University, Karlsruhe. N 1864, at the age of nineteen, he graduated in mechanical engineering.

Career, Workshop

After he graduated, Benz started a mechanical workshop with his friend. The sold building and construction material. However, the company came out as a total failure in just one year. Benz then began to work in bicycle repaired workshop.

It was working with bicycles that made him think about a mechanized vehicle. His knowledge about the bicycle came in handy. He wanted to make carriage that did not the help of horses for movement.

Benz was determined to make this dream come true. He developed a new and better engine for his carries. During 1885, Benz designed many parts of his automobile. To earn more money for his family, Benz gave birth too many inventions and patented most of them.

These include the ignition, spark plug, great shift, water radiator, and clutch. He created a for the carriage. The engine was placed between the near wheels of the carriage. He designed his automobile in such a way that many people could sit in it.

First Gas Car by Benz, Business Planning

Benz was the first person to use the first fully-powered gas car with two seats, one each for a driver and a passenger. In 1885, he completed his breakthrough invention. It was the very first automobile that was ready for commercial use. In 1886, he got the patent for his engine.

Benz was ready to sell his great invention. His invention changed the lives of people who wished to travel long distance. However, in the beginning, it was hard for Benz to show its benefits.

People were not convicted that it was much better than the horse carriage that they used at the time. People didn’t but Benz’s idea and found it impractical, until his wife Bertha took the first long-distance tour in it.

The goal was to build awareness in the automobile industry and changes the public’s opinion. She was successful in attempting this tour. Benz’s automobile was then considered to be the safest means of transportation.     

Business Growth and Popularity

Benz kept on improving his automobile model, as it gained popularity and demand amongst people. One flaw in his earlier model was that it couldn’t be driven on high hills. Also, getting fuel for these automobiles was difficult. He added brake linings and an extra gear for the ability to drive over hills.

First Benz Car Model in 1885, Many Car Models Introduced in same year

The World fair held in Paris, in 1889, increased the demand for his cars. He then set up new infrastructure for building more automobiles. He first launched the ‘Benz Model 1’ in 1885 and then the ‘Benz Model 2’. Soon, the Model3’ was also available. Benz came up with a major change in his next design and introduced the ‘Benz Velo’ model. It had four wheels instead of three.

Competition with Daimler (Mercedes) Truth behind Mercedes Benz?

Benz faced intense competition in 1920 from Daimler, who was the maker of the Mercedes engine. Both companies were in high demand. So, in 1924, they signed as agreement of at mutual interest. It benefited both of them and saved them money due to their combined production, marketing, purchasing and advertising efforts.

Soon, the two companies ventured as Daimler Benz and created one of the famous brands in the world: Mercedes Benz. The decision was fruitful for both the companies. In 1927, they launched diesel trucks.

Love Life and Death

Benz and Bertha got married in 1872. They had five children. Bertha helped her husband start the business and establish the brand, which became well-known all over the world.

Benz died on April 4, 1929, at the age of 84, at his home in Germany. Benz left a great legacy after his death and made a significant contribution to the history of automobiles. He is a prime example of innovation and marketing that continues to be in the automobile industry.  

Autobiography of Arianna Huffington

Autobiography of Arianna Huffington

Who is Arianna Huffington?

Arianna Huffington is an author, philanthropist and television personality. She is the owner of online news magazine, The Huffington Post.  She was originally Arianna Stasinopoulos; she was born July 15, 1950, in Athens, Greece to Konstantinos and Eli Stasinopoulos.

Her father was a journalist and a management consultant. She was close her father, but she was influenced more by her mother. At the age of sixteen, Arianna moved to the U.K. She studied Economics at Girton College, Cambridge.

School Life, College, Interests

Arianna joined the college debating society called the Cambridge Union. She was the first foreign and third female president of the society. She graduated in 1972 with a Master Degree.

After graduation, Arianna appeared in edition of Face the Music along with Bernard Levin. He helped her with the editing, and soon she started writing books. She also worked as a columnist, critic, and a television host.

Career Goals

Arianna took off with the release of The Female Woman in 1973. The book was a bestseller and brought her a lot of fame. She came up with her second book, After Reason, in 1978 which was not as successful as the first one. After this, she turned to Vogue, Cosmopolitan, and newspaper like the Daily Mail and The Spectator.

Due to some personal issue, she moved to New York in 1980 and began to take interests in politics and Journalism. In the late 1980s, Arianna wrote several articles for The National Review. Her next big hit was a biographical book an Maria Callas called Maria Callas- The Woman Behind the Legend in 1980.       

in 1983, she released the Gods of Greece. She also wrote a biography of Pablo Picasso called Picasso: Creator and Destroyer in 1988.

Member of Republican Party

Apart from writing, she was also a member of the Republican Party. She became famous for being a strong supporter of conservative causes. She made regular television appearances to state and support her view points. Later on, she started to shift towards more environmental causes and corporate improvement.

In 1998, she began to do a weekly radio show called Left Right and Center. In 2003 she started the ‘Detroit Project’. The year 2005 was the turning point in Arianna career. She launched the Huffington Post that year. Before starting her blog, she hosted a website called However, her first venture on the Internet was a website called


Arianna became the editor-in-chief of The Huffington Post Media Group after six years. The Huffington Post now covers a wide variety of topics, sports and business. In 2008, The Observer named it as the most powerful blog in the world.

 Aside from her business, she was part of cast of the animated series The Cleveland Show. She gave her voice to the wife of Tim the bear, also named Arianna.  She made a few appearances on shows such as Roseanne, The L World, How I Met Your Mother, Help Me Help You, and in the film EdTV.

Leaving Post Media Group

Arianna major works include her participation in the 24th Annual Distinguished Speaker Series’ in 2010. She has appeared several times in the news for her debates on world events, political issues, and the local economy.

In 2011, Arianna sold the Huffington Post AOL. She became the president and editor-in-chief of The Huffington Post Media Group. In 2006, she announced that she was leaving the company to start a health and wellness company called Thrive Global.

Love Life

Arianna married Michael Huffington in 1986 and moved to California. Eleven years later the couple got divorced. They have two daughters.

Awards and Achievements

During period 1997, Arianna nominated for a Primetime Emmy for the comedy talk show politically in correct.  She was named in Forbes’s first-ever list of the ‘Most Influential Woman in Media’ in 2009. In 2012, The Huffington Post became the first U.S. digital media business to win a Pulitzer Prize.  

Some Great Collection

The Huffington Post.  

Daily Mail and The Spectator.

Vogue, Cosmopolitan

After Reason,

The L World, How I Met Your Mother, Help Me Help You

in the film EdTV.

Left Right and Center.

book an Maria Callas called Maria Callas

The Woman Behind the Legend

Picasso: Creator and Destroyer

Autobiography of Joseph Priestley

Autobiography of  Joseph Priestley

Who is Joseph Priestley? School, Education, Interest, Childhood, Family Background  

Joseph Priestley was an English priest, author, chemist and scientist, who made one of the most significant contributions to the field of experimental chemistry with his discovery of oxygen.

Joseph Priestley was born on 13th March, 1733 in England to Jonas Priestley and Mary Swift. He was the eldest of six children. He belonged to an English family and his parents were cloth makers.

 He received his early education at a grammar school. From very young age, Priestley was interested in politics, religion and science. He studied Latin and Greek, and became skilled in physics, philosophy and mathematics.

His father sent him to live with his uncle and aunt. After he completed his education at the local school, he went to Daventry Academy. Priestley completed his education and worked as a minister and a teacher.  

Met Many Intellectuals, Benjamin Franklin

During the 1760s, priestly met many English intellectuals in 1765; he was made a Doctor of Law by the University of Edinburgh for his A Chart of Biography. The next year, his experiments with electricity made him a member of the Royal Society.

His involvements in religious and political Philosophies let him to become friends with leaders like Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.   

Benjamin Franklin was Priestley’s good friend and supported his work in science and politics Priestley’s most significant research was the 700-page long The History and Present State of Electricity.

Priestley’s other major work was The Rudiments of English Grammar, a famous grammar book written in 1761. He opened a local school where children were taught English grammar and other languages.

Britain’s scientific community, Discovery of Oxygen

In 1765, he released Essay on a Course of Liberal Education for Civil and Active Life. In his essay, he discussed how universities don’t allow their students to learn practical skills which could be of use in the real world. Instead, children were given a traditional and classical education.

 Later, he published a book called A History of the Corruptions of Christianity this was the most significant of all his works as an author. Priestley soon became a well-established author and people liked reading his works. He became one of the respected members of Britain’s scientific community.

Priestley also established himself as a renowned chemist. One of his most significant discoveries was oxygen. He conducted many experiments to analyze the different properties of air. He tested oxygen separately to see if it would support life.

Then one day, he made an important observation: plants released oxygen into the air. Between 172 and 1790, he wrote six volumes of Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air. He explained the ways by which he discovered ‘oxygen’ was derived from the Greek word for ‘acid-maker’.

French Revolution

Priestley was known to be a supporter of the American Revolution. He also published many controversial works and supported the French Revolution. During 1791, his writings led to a massive negative response from the public and the government.

His house and church were burned down, after which he fled the country with his family. He settled in Pennsylvania, United States and spent the latter years of his life there.

Priestley continued his research and made more significant and contributions to chemistry. His experimented and separated carbon monoxide. It was termed as ‘heavy inflammable air’. He also built the Unitarian Church in the United States.

In 1876, the American Chemical Society was founded because of Priestley’s discovery of oxygen. Currently, it is the world’s largest scientific society.

Love Life and Death

Many statues of Priestley have been built all over Britain as a tribute to his inventions. Since 1922, the Priestley Medal has been awarded to those scientific who contributed towards the welfare of humanity.

Priestley got married on 23rd June, 1762 to Mary Wilkinson. The couple had four children. He died at the age of seventy on 6th February, 1804.                            

Short Life Story of Henri Matisse

Short Life Story of Henri Matisse

Who is Henri Matisse? School, Education, Childhood, Family Background

Henri Matisse was French artist whose career spanned over six decades. Apart from being a painter, he was also a draughtsman, print-maker and sculptor. Matisse was one of the major artists of the 20th century. He was a leader of the Fauvist movement.

Henri Matisse’s full name was Henri-Emile-Benoit Matisse. He was born on 31st December, 1869, in Nord, France to Emile Hippolyte Matisse and Anna Heloise Gerard. He was the eldest son of the couple.

His father was a grain merchant and a very strict figure in Henri’s life. Henri went to Paris to study law at his father’s behest in 1887. He started to paint in 1889, when his mother brought him some art supplies when he was recovering from appendicitis. He said it was “a kind of paradise”, and made him decide to be an artist, much to his father’s chagrin. 

After moving to Saint Quentin for some time, he returned to Paris in 1891 and decided to pursue a career in art. He attended an art school called Academie Julian in Paris. When he first began to paint, he took his mother’s advice and painted works based on his emotions.

Met Gustave, Interests, J.M.W Tuner, National des Beaux-Arts, and Van Gogh’s Impressionist art

He was then trained under the artist Gustave Moreau. With him, Matisse explored modern styles of painting. He learned about contemporary art. Gradually, he started to paint still-life and landscape paintings in a traditional style.

In 1896, he displayed four his paintings I the societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts. It was such a success that he was appointed as an associate member of the Salon society. In 1897, Matisse met artists John Pater Russell. He introduced Matisse to impressionism art the famous artist Van Gogh’s Impressionist art.

In the next few years, he advanced impressionism. Matisse first masterpiece was ‘The Dinner Table’, painted in 1897. After getting married in 1898, he moved to London and studied the works of J.M.W Tuner, and also worked n Corsica, where he received a lasting impression of Mediterranean sunlight and color.   

New Color Techniques

Around 1905, he discovered new style and color techniques. He used bolder, brighter colors and a broad brush stroke. He painted several works for the World Fair at the Grand Palais in Paris.

He started implementing spontaneous brush work and theoretically realistic complementary colors. Matisse and a group of artist displayed their art in a room at the Salon d’Automne. The group was called the “Fauves” meaning “Wild Beats”.

Their art style was called Fauvism. Matisse’s most famous Fauvist painting was ‘Woman with a Hat’. He used bright and violent colors to paint the woman in this piece. It gained a lot of acclaim and was sought after by major art collectors.

Greatest Painting of All Time

From 1905 to 1906, Matisse painted one of his greatest paintings, The Joy of Life’. It was one of the most important works of 20th century.

In 1911, he completes his ‘The Red Studio’. It was painted towards the end of the Fauvism movement. In this painting, Matisse played with a flatness of the depicted space, almost parallel to the canvas, and created an interesting arrangement of colors and shapes. Later in his life, Matisse’s changed his art techniques. He used patterns and soon came up with collages. Matisse’s cut-outs were huge but showed simplicity. He later produced a book called Jazz counting these cut-outs.

Went to Algeria

During 1906, he traveled to Algeria and Morocco. There, he was inspired by African culture. By 1919, Matisse had become an internationally known master.

His style at that time was characterized by the use of pure colors and their complex interplay.  The goal of Matisse’s art was the portrayal of joyful living in contrast to the stresses of our technological age.

Other artwork created by Matisse includes paintings such as ‘The Blue Nude’, ‘The Knife Thrower’, and ‘Icarus’. His painting ‘The Dance II’, painted in 1932, highlighted features like simplicity, color and paper cut-outs.

One of Matisse’s final works was ‘Blue Nude II’, a series of paintings created in 1952. The color blue dominated the painting.

Love Life and Death

Matisse married Amelie Noellie Parayre in 1898. They got divorced in 1939. He was the father of three children. He died on November 3, 1954, at the age of 84 in Nice, France after he suffered from a heart attack.

Matisse is recognized as one of the founders of Fauvism and one of the leading figures of modern art.    

Some Great Collection
  • The Dinner Table
  • Wild Beats
  • The Knife Thrower’, and ‘Icarus
  • The Joy of Life
  • Woman with a Hat

Life Introduction of Johannes Gutenberg

Life Introduction of Johannes Gutenberg

Who is Johannes Gutenberg, School, Education, Interests

Johannes Gutenberg was German goldsmith, printer, publisher and also a wee-known inventor. He was the first person to introduce the moveable-type printing press in Europe, which was used until the twentieth century. He introduced the first-ever printed book with the movable type called Forty-Two-Line Bible or the Gutenberg Bible.  

Johannes Gutenberg was born around 1399 in Mainz, Germany, to Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden and Else Wyrich. He was the youngest in his family. His father was a well-known merchant.

From a very young age, Johannes took an interest in reading. The books that he used to read were written by hand. These were known as ‘manuscripts’, which implied ‘hand written’. He belonged to a wealthy family, to whom books were easily available. Johannes wanted other people to be able to afford these books as well.

So he decided to create a quicker way of painting. The earliest widely used painting machine and method was known as ‘block printing’. The block would print only one page at a time. It was the slowest methods of producing copies of books.

First Job, Experiments, Press Machine Establishment

In 1428, Gutenberg got a new job in the Jewelry industry. He learned how to cut germs and make jewelry. Gutenberg did most of his experiments in secret. He turned his home into a workshop, where he worked day and night. He often felt disappointed as most of his experiments failed.

He suffered financial crises, as he invested most of his saving in his experiments. He met Johann Fust, a wealthy goldsmith and lawyer at his old home, Mainz in 1448. Fust helped Gutenberg financially and Gutenberg continued his work. In just two years, his new parenting press machine was ready.

Created an Printing Machine, First Book by Gutenberg, Business

He came up with many ideas for creating this printing machine. First, Gutenberg designed a little hardwood block, which printed a single letter at a time. It was a very slow process. Then, he moved to movable types, which printed only one page. He believed that using wood for printing was the reason behind his failure.

So, Gutenberg moved away from wood types and decided to use metal types. It was a success, and he was able to print his first book in a few years. His business grew and he got into a partnership with Johann Fust, blamed Gutenberg for spending his money and not creating any profit in return. Gutenberg lost his business eventually and all the rights went to Fust.

German Poems, Gutenberg Bible

First piece printed from the press was German poems. Soon, he started to print the Latin Bible and Latin grammar texts. Gutenberg’s most famous work was the 300-page book, the Gutenberg Bible, with each page containing 42 lines.

These books, for the first time, were available to people outside the church. He opened his second workshop at his birthplace, Mainz. Everyone in Europe knew about Gutenberg at this point and his feat of mass production of books. He printed hundreds of Bible in very little time. 

Make a History, Dedication, and Printing Press

The Gutenberg press was major invention in world history. The books evolved handwritten to printed books. It all became possible due to Gutenberg’s hand work and dedication. He introduced the fast printing press, which decreased the cost of books and saved time. The Gutenberg press continued to be used in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The works printed by him are considered rare and constitute some of the most valuable printed material in the world.

Awards and Achievements and Death of Gutenberg  

He received the little of Hofmann for his scientific work. He was called a ‘Gentleman of the Court. The honor came with money, clothing and food, which was provided to him until his death.

Gothenburg died in 1468 in Mainz, Germany and left a great legacy behind. His prints achieved great fame, and sold millions of copies all over the worlds. Project Gutenberg, the oldest digital library, was built as a tribute to Gutenberg.

Best Moment

In 1952, the United States released stamps to honor Gutenberg’s inventions. Time magazine declared that the Gutenberg invention was the most crucial work in the history of inventions. A minor planet called ‘777 Gutenberg’ was named after him. He is still remembered as a great printer and innovator.                

Life Introduction of Gustav Klimt

Life Introduction of Gustav Klimt

Who is Gustav Klimt? School, Education, Interests

Gustav Klimt was an Australia painter and founder of the school of painting called the Vienna Sezession. Klimt dominated the art scene of the 19th century. He was famous for his decorative art, a genre that most of his contemporary artists never adopted.

His famous painting are ‘Old Burgtheater in Vienna’, The Kiss’, ‘portrait of Baroness Elisabeth Bachofen-Echt’ and ‘portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I’.  Gustav Klimt was born in Baumgarten, Austria, to Ernst Klimt and Anne Klimt.

He had six siblings. His father worked a gold silver engraver in Vienna. His family was poor and Klimt had a difficult childhood. But he somehow completes his education. In 1876, he attended the Vienna School of Art and Crafts where he studied architectural paintings.  

Truth Behind of “Company of Artists”, Vienna Sezession, Group of Painters, Vienna Burgtheater

Klimt’s Brother Ernst, who became an engraver, also enrolled in the school. The two brothers and their friend Franz Matsch   decided to work together. By 1880, they received many projects working as a team called the Company of Artists. Klimt began to paint wall mural and the ceilings of buildings. His work became popular.

As he continued to develop his style of ornamentation, his mature style emerged, and he founded the Vienna Sezession, a group of painters who revolted against academic art in favor of a highly decorative style similar to Art Nouveau. In 1888, he painted a mural for the Vienna Burgtheater.

Realism in Photography, Skills

The painting is recognized for its photographic realism and became popular amongst many artists. During this time, Klimt went through a significant turn of events in his life. He dealt with the loss of his father and brother. All the responsibility fell on his shoulders and he had to provide for his family.

After these events, his artistic skills were never the same again. There was a significant change in his art style. While exploring historical themes, he also ventured into psychology, symbolic themes and started to paint different subjects.

Founder of Vienna Sezession, Realism and Symbolism, Young Artists

In 1897, he founded the Vienna Sezession and served as president. It was an art society for Austrian artists. Soon, they launched their own magazine called Sacred Spring. He was a member of Sezession till 1908.

Klimt brought the best foreign artists’ works to Vienna and published them in his magazine. He encouraged different art style like Naturalism, Realism and Symbolism, which all coexisted at the time. The organization even held exhibitions for young artists.

Great Artwork, Impressionism

Klimt also developed his own style, which became the movement’s trademark. He used Impressionism in his artwork, which was revolutionary against the traditional academic art style. During this time, with the Vienna Sezessonists, he created landscapes like Houses on Interact on Attersee Lake’.

Klimt was most successful and appreciated as an artist in his ‘Golden Phase’ a phase marked by immense success. He started using gold leaf in his painting. Klimt showcased his ornamental style by using a lot of gold and silver colors in his artwork during this time, his major work at this time was ‘The Kiss’, one of the many paintings that were created in his Golden phase.

Awards and Achievements, Love Life, Death  

His painting, ‘Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I’, was one of his most prized paintings. For painting ‘Death and Life’, he won many awards and was featured in the world Exhibition in Rome. In 1910, he painted Lady with Feather’.

Throughout his life, Klimt has received honors for his skill and talent in the art field. He was awarded the Golden Order of Merit for his murals in Vienna. He was also an honorary member of the University of Munich and University of Vienna.

Klimt lived with his partner Emilie Louise Floge. They were together for over twenty ears. The couple had fourteen children. Klimt died on February 6, 1918, at the age of 55 in Vienna, Austria after he suffered from pneumonia and stroke.                        

Life Story of James Watt

Life Story of James Watt

Who is James Watt?

James Watt was Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist. He is known for his invention of the first modern steam engine. He played a significant role in the Industrial Revolution by developing mathematical instruments and later, steam engines. He was a renowned member of the Royal Society of London.

Childhood, School, College, Interests

James Watt was born on 19th January, 1736 in Greenock, Scotland to Agnes Muirhead and James Watt. He came from a well- educated family. His father was a businessman and a contractor.  He was often home-schooled by his mother in the subjects of arithmetic and writing.

His love for machinery started when his father gifted him small toolkit. He played with it at his father’s workshop. He also deconstructed and reassembled different objects. As a kid, he designed various models and instruments.

First Job, Making Instruments, Skills, Financial Condition

While growing up he faced some difficult time due to his family’s financial condition. His father lost his inheritance. At the age of seventeen, James lost his mother; he was devastated. At this time, one of his relatives working at Glasgow University inspired James to master the skill of instruments-making. He went London and used his skill to earn money. He decided to pursue a career in mathematical- instrument making. He learned how to craft the instruments from his father and grandfather.

Workshop of Instruments, Own Business, John Craig, Built Many Instruments

In 1755, Watt started working in an instrument- making workshop. There, he met John Morgan who taught him the craft of making instruments with a little pay. In just one year, Watt learned all the necessary skills and made a successful career out of it. Even through Watt never had any musical talent, his instruments were than those made by music experts.

Next year, he returned to Glasgow to start his own business of instrument-making. In 1757, Watt set up shop at the university campus with his friend. For the next six years, Watt and John Craig built many musical instruments and toy. He was known as the ‘mathematical instruments maker’ at the university. During this time, he met his famous economist Adam Smith.

Steam Engine, Met with Robinson, Newcomen

Watt developed an interest in building the steam engine. He met john Robinson, who introduced Watt to the science and technology behind it. He first got the chance to make an instrument, when one of his professors directed his attention towards a Newcomen steam engine that was not working properly.

Thomas Newcomen had built the engine to pump out the water in the mines. James knew that he could use this engine for more than just pumping water. He saw the potential and the profit in it.

Modern Steam Engine, Economic Growth, Fire Engines

For many years, he worked on his model. It took him a lot of time to design it. In 1775, he came up with a method to change and improve the engine, which led to the invention of the modern steam engine. He was the first person to suggest a separate condenser for the engine.

In 1775, he got a parent for his steam engine called ‘A New Invented Method of Lessening the Consumption of Steam and Fuel in Fire Engines’. The invention of the Industrial Revolution and helped Great Britain with its economic growth.

Boulton & Company with Matthew Boulton

Watt replicated the previous Newcomer model to improve the production method. Watt opened the Boulton & Company with Matthew Boulton, where they sold steam engines. The demand for his engine grew all over the world. Watt’s company employed many people to run the business, which benefits the society.

In 1784, Watt made further improvements to the steam engine and patented his steam locomotive. By the end of the seventeenth century, both Watt and Boulton were wealthy men. He retired a few years later and used his wealth to pursue other interests like improving oil lamps and measuring distances with a telescope.

Awards and Achievements & Love Life and Death

For his significant contribution to the society, he received many awards. In 1784, Watt became a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. In 1787, he was selected as a member of the Batavian Society for Experimental Philosophy.

In 1806, he was awarded an honorary decorated in law by the University of Glasgow. After his death, James’ last name ‘Watt’ was included in the suit of power in the International System of Units.Watt married Margaret Miller in 1764. She died while giving birth. He got married for the second time in 1777 to Ann Macgregor. James died at the age of 83, on 25th August, 1819 in England.               

Who is of Georges Seurat

Who is of Georges Seurat

Who is Georges Seurat?  School, Childhood, Interests

Georges Seurat was French painter who founded the famous theory and practice of 19th century Neo-Impressionism. He popularized the technique of using light with tiny brushstrokes, which eventually became “Pointillism”. Some of his works include ‘Une Baignade’, Asnieresand ‘A Sunday on La Grande Jatte’. 

Georges Seurat was born on December 2 1859, in Paris, France. He belonged to a wealthy family, and this allowed him to thrive in his art. His father was a legal official. As a kid, he used to spend his spare time in the garden with his mother.

The people who visited him and these places became the subject to many of his greatest paintings. Seurat took an interest in painting from a very early age and studied some great artists’ works like the French sculpture Justin Lequien.

For his education, he attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1878. He excelled in his studies and was an intelligent child who kept to himself after he served a year in the military, he returned to Paris. Thereon, he began to improve his art skills.

For the next two years, he mastered the art of black and white drawings. His parents supported him, which helped Seurat to paint and freely explore different areas of art.

Some Greatest Works by Seurat, Brothers at Asnieres’

Seurat’s greatest work was created in 1883. It was called ‘Brothers at Asnieres’. It was a large painting of people relaxing near the water at Asnieres. He submitted this painting to the official French art exhibitions, the Salon. But the Salon rejected his work. Later, he joined the society of Independent Artist. There, he painted the first of the six large canvases which established his art career.

During this time, Seurat explored different art styles. In the mid-1880s he began to use the science of optics and color in his art. Instead of mixing the paint on the canvas, he experimented by placing tiny dots of different colors next to each other on the canvas.

He called this painting style “Divisionism”, which was later called “Pointillism”. This technique made colors appear brighter. In 1984, he met Paul Signac, who became a good friend and chief disciple of Seurat’s. They both used the same method of pointillism in their art.

Masterpiece by Seurat, La Grande Jatte, Impressionist exhibition

In 1884, Seurat created another masterpiece. It was a huge painting called ‘Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte’.  It was also reflected the technique of pointillism. This iconic piece was painted on a ten-foot wide canvas and displayed as the centerpiece at the last Impressionist exhibition.  Many people viewed the work up close and failed to see it whole.

The painting became the most famous image of the 1880s, and he revived the Impressionist movement as it had started to decline. He painted the entire painting with only small dots of bright and pure color. For his piece, he used the same inspiration again, the popular boating place of Asnieres. However, this time, he focused on the island of La Grande Jatte. 

Paris, and met many Famous Artists, Vincent van and Edgar Degas.

Owing to the complexity of the art, it took him two years to finish this project. The painting became the taking point of the exhibition. Most people were amazed by Seurat’s art and a few criticized it. But, it made Seurat one of the most significant artists in Paris.  

In his later years, he continued to paint in the pointillism style. He also tried using lines in his art. He believed that different types of lines would express different types of emotions. He also became friends with other post- impressionist artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Edgar Degas.

Love Life and Death

Seurat lived with a young model, Madeleine Knobloch for most of his life. In 1890, they had a son. In his last few months, he worked on his final artwork, ‘The Circus’. It was left unfinished, but as if thorough some premonition, he decided to present it at the eight Salon des Independents. Seurat died very early, on March 29, 1891, at the age of 31 in France. Seurat left in the art world with his few ideas and concepts for the use of colors.               

Who is Farida Kahlo

Who is Farida Kahlo

Who is Farida Kahlo? Childhood, Family, School Life, Polio

Farida Kahlo was a Mexican painter best known for her extravagantly colored self-portraits and is still hailed as a feminist icon. Her paintings were based on themes such as identity, the human body and death. She was usually identified as a Surrealist.

She linked traditional Mexican folk art with Surrealism. Her most famous works include Self Portrait with Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird’ ‘Memory, the Heart’, ‘Henry Ford Hospital’, ‘Self Portrait with Monkeys’ and ‘What I saw in the Water’.

Frida Kahlo was born on July 6, 1907, in Coyoacan, Mexico to Guillermo Kahlo, a photographer and Matilde Gonzalez. She had three siblings. Kahlo suffered from poor health in her childhood.

At the age of six, she contracted polio and was bedridden for nine months. The polio caused her right leg to grow much thinner than her left one.

After her recovery from polio she had a limp. To fight her disease, she played soccer and leaned swimming. She kept a very close relationship with her father her whole life. She learned how to use the camera and develop photographs from him.

She attended the famous National Preparatory School in 1922 and worked as an apprentice under Fernando Fernandez. He was commercial paint-maker and taught Frida the basic of drawing and copy printing.

Member of Young Communist League, Accident, As a Painter

She was studying medicine until she met with a terrible bus accident in 1925. She was severely injured and had to go through over thirty operations. She stayed in the Red Cross Hospital for several weeks. The accident left her in a great deal of pain.

To relieve the pain, she started the painting and dabbled in watercolors and oil paintings. She painted more than fifty self – portraits over the course of her life. Kahlo also become politically active and became a member of the Young Communist League.

In Francisco, Met Many Artists

In 1930, she went to San Francisco and there, she met many prominent artists. The next year, she displayed her works to the public for the first time at the Sixth Annual Exhibition of the San Francisco Society of Women Artists. She presented a portrait of her and Diego Rivera, who she’d met at the National Preparatory School and was in flaunted with, called ‘Frida and Diego Rivera’

In 1937, four of Kahlo’s paintings were showcased at the Galleria de Arte. National Autonomous University of Mexico. The following year, the bssssecame a good friend of the French poet and Surrealist Andre Breton.

Solo Exhibitions, The Louvre

In 1938, she held her first solo exhibitions at the Julien Levy Gallery, New York. She displayed 25 of her paintings. Most of her art was sold immediately. The next year, she presented her art work at the Mexique exhibition in Paris. Her self – portrait named ‘The Frame’ was purchased by the largest museum in the world, the Louvre.

Paintings, And Met Many Famous Artists

Her paintings, ‘The Two Fridas’and The Wounded Table’ were displayed at the International Surrealism Exhibition, held at the Gallery of Mexican Art. Her work led her to meet artist such as Marc Chagall and Pablo Picasso.

Her major work from 1940 was ‘Self Portrait with Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird’. In this piece, she painted herself wearing a necklace of thorns, suffering. Her paintings were showcased in over 25 museums all over the world.

Faced Physical Challenges

Kahlo received a commission to paint five important Mexican women from the Mexican government in 1941. But she unable to finish the project, as she lost her beloved father that year and suffered from many health problems. Despite the challenges, she continued to grow in popularity. In 1942, she painted her ‘Self – Portrait with Braid.  

In 1944, Kahlo painted on of her most famous portraits, ‘The Broken Column’.With this portrait, she put forth the physical challenges she faced. She finished this painting right after she underwent spine surgery.

Her health worsened in 1950 when he was diagnosed with gangrene in her right foot. She became bedridden for months and had several surgeries. But Kahlo continued to work and paint. She created nearly 150 paintings.

Awards and Achievements, Death

For her exceptional work as a painter, she received the National Prize of Arts and Sciences in 1946. In 1929, Frieda married Diego Rivera, a Mexican painter. But they eventually divorced in 1939 before getting back together shortly after in 1940. She died at the age of 47 due to lung failure in Mexico Kahlo’s fame has only grown since her death.                 

Autobiography of Samuel Beckett

Autobiography of Samuel Beckett

Life and works of Beckett’s, Works, School, Family

Samuel Beckett was born 13 April 1906, which was Good Friday that year. He was born at Foxrock, near Dublin, second son of William Frank Beckett and Mary Beckett.William Beckett was a prosperous businessman in Dublin, well liked and respected. They had a hood parental relationship with Samuel and he had a happy childhood.

His parents wished to be educated well, and were proud of his sporting as well as academic prowess. Samuel Beckett was educated at Earlsfort House Preparatory school in Dublin, and then at the Protestant boarding school Portora Royal, one of the best and most, expensive schools in Ireland. He then he went trinity College to read French and Italian.

In school as well as college, Beckett was a brilliant student as well as an outstanding sportsman. At college, he belonged to the chess, golf and cricket, clubs. He actually played a first class cricket match. He participated in dramatics and was an avid theater goer.

He completed his Bachelor of Arts at the Trinity College in 1927, topping his batch with a First Class and Winning the gold medal. He was then selected to represent Trinity College in an exchange programme with Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, which he joined in 1928; for the two terms in between, he taught at Campbell College, Belfast. The two years spent at Paris are notable for his meeting fellow-Irishman, James Joyce, and becoming part of his intimate circle; Joyce became a major influence on his early literary style.

He also won a prize in a competition for poems written in the subject of time for Whorescope. In 1930, Beckett returned to Ireland to join Trinity College as an Assistant Lecturer in French. He received his Master of Arts Degree but did not enjoy being an academic even though he published his acclaimed book on Marcel Proust during this period, in 1931.

He was in Germany, on his Christmas vacation in 1932, when he telegraphed his resignation. He was to say later that ‘I could not bear the absurdity of teaching others what I did not know myself. 

Thus began next phase of Beckett’s life – in this decisive cutting away from his moorings. However, he was always to retain an Irish passport; which was not without further irony for Beckett, a Protestant, never felt at home in the Protestant North. He felt at home in the protestant north. He felt he belonged to the Catholic Republic, but decried its repressive policies toward arts.

He retained the passport, but lived in Europe. From 1932-1937, Beckett wandered around Europe, mostly Germany, gaining expertise European languages and literatures. He also educated himself in the visual arts and was to put this expertise to good effect in later years, both in the theatre and in art criticism.

In 1937, he made Paris his permanent home. More Pricks That Kicks, Beckett’s collection of short stories, was published in 1934 and promptly banned in Ireland because of its ‘blasphemous’ reference to the Bible- the title is form a statement attributed to Jesus. ‘I am Jesus whom thou persecutest: it’s hard for thee to kick against the prick’s (Acts of the Apostles 9:5).

A collection of poems was published next – Echo and Other Precipitates (1935). His first novel, Murphy, was published in 1938.

During World II

He was on vacation in Dublin in 1939 when World War II broke out, but he hot back to France because he preferred ‘France in war to Ireland in peace’. The Irish Republic had declared itself neutral but Beckett committed himself to fighting Nazism and joined the French Resistance.

Discovered by the Germans in 1942, Beckett fled to unoccupied France, where he wrote Watt, which was published in 1953, while working on a farm. He was decorated for his valour by General de Gaulle with the Croix de Guerre and the Medaille de la Resistance. Beckett played down this phase of his life, dismissing it as ‘Boy Scout stuff’.

He resumed his life in Paris at the end of the war and this period of five years, 1945-1950, saw a burst of inspired creative writing from him. This was the time that he wrote his famous trilogy – the three novels, Molly, Malone Dies and the Unnameable- and his most famous play, En attendant wrote Eleutheria (a play he repudiated later and which remains unperformed) and some short stories and prose during this period. It is interesting that all these works were written in French.

Beckett was to say later that French imposed a discipline- forcing him into utmost clarity and economy of expression, because it was easier to write without style in French – ‘Peace qu’en francais c’est plus facile d’ecrire sans style’. {Esslin 1968:38}.

This was truly a rich creative period in Beckett’s life According to John Fletcher, almost nothing the Beckett wrote late ‘was quite to equal the works for the late 1940s in profundity, originality and imaginative power. {Fletcher 2003:8} .As Fletcher goes on to explain, these works of the late 1940s ask the big questions of life, questions about our identity and reasons for our existence.

They are original in terms of their style, which helps to knit together comedy and tragedy, the banal and the philosophical, the grotesque and the sublime. Their imaginative power needs no argument, for the figures from these works have attained the status of universal myths. None more so than Waiting for Godot.     

One should remember that Beckett was a consummate novelist as well, though he is better known as a dramatist. His dalliance with theatre began fairly early, in the 1930s- he collaborated on a play, Le Kid {a parody of Corneille’s Le Cid, a seventeenth-century play} with Georges Pelorson, and began to write a four-act play Human Wishes, on Samuel Johnson and his benefactress Mrs. Thale.

Then after the war, he wrote Eleutheria and En attendant Godot. It was in waiting for Godot that he found his voice and it set him up as a successful dramatist. The plays that he wrote in the decade or so following the success of.

  • Waiting For Godot
  • The radio play all that fall in  1957
  • Endgame  in 1957
  • Radio without words I in  1957
  • Krapp’s Last Tape in  1958
  • Play Embers in  1959
  • Act Without Words II in 1960
  • Happy Days in  1961
  • Play in 1963
  • Come and Go in 1966

Added to his reputation and led to his winning the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1969.

His plays have few characters, almost no setting, and no action of the kind that audiences would recognize. Even language disappears from some of his plays. Two of the plays named above are, as they proclaim, without words, i.e. they are mimes.

A later play Breath (1970), which is all of a minute in length, contains only the sounds of breathing and cries. And if you think that Waiting For Godot has minimal action, then you should see the rest of the plays.

In Endgame, two characters are confined to dustbins, and one to an armchair in castors; in Happy days, Winnie is up to her waist in a mound in Act I, and up to her armpits in Act II; and Not I (1972) depicts only the mouth of a woman, the rest of her body being shadow.

His next plays continued with the same extreme streak – That Time (1976) does have an old woman shuffling to and fro. He also wrote similarly extreme plays for television in the mid- 1970s – Ghost Trio and …. But the clouds Beckett continued to write plays till almost the last years of his life, his last play being What Where (1984). He died in 1989