Who was Bhagat Singh?
Bhagat Singh is one of the brave martyr sons of India, with whose blood the history of freedom has been written, whose scarifies nervous most of the Indian minds, who shrewd politics put the British imperialists in great situation, and of whom mother is proud.
Bhagat Singh was Born on 27 September, 1907 in village Banga (now in Pakistan) in district Layalpur, Punjab Bhagat Singh’s father Sardar Kishan Singh and his two uncles Ajit Singh and Swarn Singh, being against the English regime were in jail at that time. It was just a matter of chance that they were released from the jail, on same day, when Bhagat Singh was born. To commemorate this occasion Bhagat Singh’s grandmother gave him the name Bhangawala and later on, he was called the name great Bhagat Singh.
Having been born in a patriotic family, Bhagat Sigh inherited patriotism as a matter of course. At the age of five years, Bhagat Singh was admitted to the village primary school. Among his companions he became so popular that, at times, they put him on their shoulders and came to leave him home.
Bhagat singh had to sit in small rooms in the school and this he did not like. Leaving his class, he used to go in the open to roam about the lounge to be as free the open fields.
Early and School Voyage
After the completion of the primary education, he was joined to the D.A.V. School, Lahore in 1916-17. There he came contact with patriotic like Lala Lajpat Rai and Sufi Amba Prasad. In 1919, demonstrations were being held to protest against the Rowlatt Act throughout the country. It was during this time that the Jalianwala Bagh tragedy took place. Hearing this tragedy.
Bhagat Singh left Lahore and reached Amritsar. He paid tributes to those who had died in the name of country, and kept in a bottle the blood soaked earth, so that he may always remember that he had to take revenge of the dishonor done to his Motherland and its inhabitants.
He was inspired by the Non-cooperation Movement of Mahatma Gandhi, and left the school in 1921. For those students, who were affected by the Non-cooperation Movement, Lala Lajpat Rai founded the National College in Lahore.
Bhagat Singh also got himself admitted in this college. In Punjab National College, Lahore Bhagat Singh’s patriotic feelings were fully developed. Here In this college, he came into contact with great revolutionaries, like Yashpal, Bhagwaticharan, Sukhdev, Tirath Ram, Jhanda Singh, RajGuru, and others. In this college, there was also a National Drama Club, during this club he took a part in the dramas of patriotism, Viz, Rana Partap, Bharat Durdasha and Samrat Chandra Gupta.
Wedded Journey and Met Revolutionaries
In 1923, Bhagat Singh passed F.A, the same year his brother, Jagat Singh, expired. There were talks of Bhagat Singh marriage. To continue the children, the family members wished to have a son so they wanted to marry Bhagat Singh at an early date. But for Bhagat Singh, marriage was an obstruction, as he was pledged to remove the chains of subjugation of Mother India.
To escape all this, he fled away from the college. He reached Delhi and began to work as a correspondent of Hindi Daily ‘Arjun”. In 1924 he met Shri Ganesh Shanakr Vidyarthi at Kanpur, the director-editor-of Pratap. There he came in the contact with Batukeshwar Dutta, and he enrolled himself as a member of the Hindustan Republic Association.
Bhagat Singh was fully involved in the revolutionary activities and the service of the country, his meeting with Chander Shekhar was like uniting of two revolutionary minds or combining of the two patriotic volcanoes that were prepared to sacrifice themselves. It appeared as if these two young men not only made the revolutionary much stronger, but also they left nothing to chance to torment the Englishmen.
Young India Association By Bhagat Singh
Bhagat Singh orgnaised “Youngmen India Association’ (Naujawan Bharat Sabha) in Lahore in 1926. This association was not associated with any religion. Every member had to take a pledge that he would keep the interest of the country above the interests of his community and religion. To remove the distinctions of Hindu-Musalman, casteism, untouchability and other narrow mindedness, this association did organised joint fronts. In May 1930, this institution was declared outlawed.
In December 1927, Ram Prasad Bismal, Ashfaqa Ulla, Rajendra Lahiri and Roshan Singh were hanged to Death in connection with the Kakori case. Chander shekher Azad did not fall into the trap of Englishmen. He was still at liberty. Disturbance set in the revolutionary Party, which was disturbing Chandra Shekhar Azad. He, therefore, contacted Bhagat Singh. Bhagat Singh Azad reorganized the party.
A bullet was collected again. The British government was strong-minded to arrest Bhagat Singh at any cost. On the day of Dashara in 1927, they played a trick and arrested Bhagat Singh. A false charge was leveled against him and banning proceedings were started. The charges against Bhagat Singh could not be proved and Bhagat Singh had to be released. On 8th and 9th September 1928, a meeting of the revolutionaries was held in the ruins Firoz Shah on the advice of Bhagat Singh, the name of the Hindustan Republican Association was changed to Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.
Death of Lala Lajpat Rai
In February 1928, to examine the sections of government reforms enforced in 1928, the Simon Commission arrived at Bombay. Almost at every place, opposition to it was expressed. On October 30th 1928, the Simon Commission reached Lahore.
A procession under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai was protesting peacefully. The crowed was swelling every moment. Seeing opposition to such a big scale, Assistant Superintendent Sanders got almost mad and he ordered a lathi Charge. On Lala Lajpat Rai many lathi blows were showered. That he in pool of blood, Bhagat Singh seeing all this with his own eyes.
In 17th November, 1928, Lalaji expired. Bhagat Singh pledged to take revenge thereof. Hindustan socialist Republican Association entrusted the revenge of Lalaji’s murder to Raj Guru, Sukhdeva, Azad and Jaigopal. The revolutionaries killed sanders and took revenge of Lalaji death. The killing of Sandars made Bhagat Singh a popular leader in the whole country.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru has described in his autobiography this incident, thus “Bhagat Singh became a symbol. The murder of Sanders was forgotten. But the traces were left behind. Within a month or so, every village of the Punjab and most of Northern India reverberated with his name. About him, many songs were written and thus the popularity of Bhagat Singh was amazing.”
Hindustan Samajwadi Gantantra
In a meeting of Hindustan Samajwadi Gantantra Sangh,t the public Safety Bill and Disputes Bill’ were discussed. It was resolved that as a mark of opposition to these bills, Bhagat Singh would throw a bomb in the Assembly and instructions were given also that this should be done in such a manner as it does no harm to any life.
Afterwards, that revolutionary would offer himself for arrest. Bhagat Singh insisted that he would get it done. Azad was against it. Bit in the end, Azad was compelled to accept Bhagat Singh’s proposal.
Batukeshwar Datt was appointed his assistant on 8th April,1929, both them reached the Assembly on the appointed times. As the president of the Assembly rose to take the decision on the Bill, Bhagat Singh threw a bomb and have the slogan, Inqalab Zindabad Samrajyavad Ka Naash Ho.’ Imperialism must end. Together with this, pamphlets were thrown in which the resentment of the public was expressed. After throwing the bomb, they got themselves arrested. After their arrest, many revolutionaries were arrested; amongst them were also Sukhdeva, Jaigopal and Kishorilal.
Judgment of Lahore High Court
Bhagat Singh knew well how the Englishmen would behave with him. He did not engage a lawyer for himself. To let reach his wishes to the public, he decided to plead the case himself. On 7th May, 1929 the drama of justice against Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Datt was enacted.
On 6th June, Bhagat Singh gave his statement in his favour in which he had expressed his ideas on freedom, imperialism and revolution etc. and also put before the world the ideas of the revolutionaries.
On 12th June, 1929, the sessions judge, under section 307 if Indian Panel Code, and section 3 of Explosives Act, sentenced them to life custody. Both the patriots wanted their voice to reach the maximum number people. They, therefore, filed an appeal against the judgment of the session’s judge in the High Court Lahore. Here Bhagat Singh delivered his speech. On 13th January, 1930 the high court honoured the judgment of the session’s court and restored the life imprisonment.
Englishmen decided to catch up Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt in a new way. They referred their case to a tribunal. On 5th May 1930, hearing of their case began in poonch House Lahore, during this period, Azad made a plan to take Bhagat Singh out of the jail.
28th May Bhagwati Charan Bohra was wounded and died while examining a bomb, after that, the plan could not be worked out. The court proceedings continued for about three months. On 26th August 1930, the court almost completed its job, the court found Bhagat Singh guilty under sections 159, 302 of Indian Penal Code, and section 4 and 6F of Explosive Material Act and also under section 120 of Indian Panel Code and gave sixty eight page Judgment on 7th October, 1930, in which all three-Bhagat Singh, Sukhdeva and Raj Guru were awarded capital punishment.
In Lahore section 144 was imposed, against this judgment an appeal was filed in the Privy Council, but on January 10, 1931, the appeal was rejected. On rejection of the appeal, voices were raised not only in India, but also in other countries as well many newspapers also wrote strongly against the capital punishment of Bhagat Singh, Raj guru and Sukhdeva so much so that some members of the Lower House of the British Parliament opposed this cruel punishment.
On the eve of Gandhi-Irwin pact, all eyes of members and non-members of Congress were looking for Gandhi’s Help, but Gandhiji paid no heed to his matter. About this attitude and behavior of Gandhiji general of Azad Hind Fauz Moahn Singh was written, Gandhiji could have selected have saved Bhagat Singh from the gallows, if he had made it a point of national prestige, the whole country was prepared for the greatest scarifies.”
Last Breath on 23 March 1931
The time of hanging was fixed early morning 24th March 1931, but the government out of fear, decided to hang the three revolutionary nationalist earlier in place of morning March 23, which was cent per cent against the rules.
The superintendent of Jail went to Bhagat Singh cell and said, SardarJi, it time for execution is ready.” The time, Bhagat Sing was busy in reading the life of Lenin. He replied, “Please one revolutionary is meeting the other revolutionary’ and then he accompanied the superintendent of Jail. Rajguru and Sukhadeva were also brought to the scaffold. Bhagat Singh put his right arm in the left arm Rajguru and left the one in the arm Sukhdeva.
And then three swung on the executioner’s nooses. The atrocities of the British government on these patriots did not end here. They decided to dishonor the dead bodies of the martyrs. They cut their corpses into pieces, packed them in snacks and took them to the banks of Sutlaj in Firozpur, silently by night.
Kerosene was sprinkled and the corpses were set on fire. But this news reached from Firozpur to Lahore with the speed of whirlwind. The soldiers of the British army fled away then they saw thousands of people coming with lighted torches. The crowed of patriots then performed the last rites of the three dead ones.