|| Who is Mussolini? What are they works and interests? ||
Mussolini was born on 29 July, 1883 in Dovia di Predappio, Italy and was named Benito Mussolini. His father was a blacksmith and his mother a former school teacher. They were poor and could hardly manage things. His father was a devote socialist and hated monarchy, on Benito plastic mind and memory. He grew up into a bully, disobedient and quarrelsome student. His teachers disliked him and his class fellows avoided him.
Once in a boarding school he stabbed another student with a pen-knife and was expelled. Always restless and quarrelsome, he did not succeed at anything. He worked as a school teacher for some time and then moved to Switzerland where he worked as a laborer and a butcher’s boy. He founded a newspaper called “La Lotta di Casse” (The Class Struggle) and later in 1912 he became editor of “Avanti” (Forward), a socialist daily published from Milan.
|| Truth Behind of Mussolini Ideology and Death of Mussolini ||
Mussolini was one of those few who were deeply loved and venerated, and fiercely hated. He was the object these extremes opposites of human sentiments. In his days of glory and triumph when he appeared in the public, thousands and thousands of his followers known as the “Black Shirts” would chant in unison Duce! Duce! Duce! And when after being shot dead, he was hanged by his head from a girder in front of a garage on 29 April, 1945, at the end of the Second World War, men and women spat at his dead body.
Shouted abuses and struck at it with sticks. One of the spectators, a woman, fired five shots in Mussolini corpse to avenge her five dead sons. In his devil design and practices, he perfectly matched his counterpart Hitler of Germany. Popularly known as “II Duce” (the leader to the Black Shirts, he was ultimately captured by Italian Resistance and shot dead and then hanged along with mistress, Claretta Petacci.
Mussolini father died at the age of 57 and then Mussolini became power hungry and plunged headlong into Italian politics. The First World War changed him a lot. When expelled from the socialist Party, he started his own newspaper, II Popolo d’ Italia” (The People of Itlay) and called his countrymen to take arms. He joined army in 1916 and got promoted to the rank of a sergeant. Being wounded in 1917, he returned to his newspaper.
|| As a Fascist ||
Mussolini, a great fascist, director and man evil fame made himself out to be a strong man who could solve Italy’s problems. He put forward his Fascist ideologies as a panacea to all the ills of the country. After First World War, Itlay was the first country where fascist government appeared in its full strength and influence.
The term “Fascism has originated from “fasces” a bundle of roads with an axe which symbolized absolute power in ancient Rome. Fascism implies that a country can succeed only through disciplined and ruthless administration and a strong will-power. It offered to many people way out of national humiliation, unemployment and economic decline. Such a government and ideology was based on ruthless military power and secret police organization.
Fascist also believed that their race was superior and so they were the chosen race to rule over the world. In the struggle for existence they claimed themselves to be the fittest. They encouraged narrow national sentiments, pride and racism.
||During World War I || Mussolini Works||
Mussolini had fought in the First World War and was very much annoyed at the treatment Itlay had received at the Treaty of Versailles. He hated it will all his powers. During the years 1919-1922, Mussolini generated a vast propaganda through his paper “II Popo d’ Italica”. He founded his Fascist Party in 1919 when economic depression, wide- spread unrest and unemployment helped him to rise rapidly to power.
Mussolini followers came to be called “Fas cide Comattimento” or Black shirts because of the black colour of their uniforms. In many parts of Itlay, his supporters and followers became the guardians of law and order. They administered justice, punished criminals, broke up unions and strikes and attack Mussolini’s opponent.
|| Black Shirt ||
In October 1922, he organized “March on Rome” by his black shirts. Taking advantage of the widespread unrest, unemployment and economic decline he became the prime minister in 1928-29 using the title II Duce meaning the Leader, and imposed one party government. He became almost synonymous with Itlay. For Black shirts Mussolini became Itlay and Itlay Mussolini. He unified Itlay into a strong one nation under himself, sweeping away parliament etc.
To avenge the humiliating defeat of 1896, Mussolini invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935-1936 and then formed an Axis Pact with Germany’s Hitler. In 1939 these two dictators entered into a military by his defeat in Africa and the Balkans. And then finally, the allied invasion of Sicily in 1943, he was overthrown and arrested. He was and released by the German troops but soon captured again and executed. The same forces which had led him to power and eminence, ultimately led him to his room and destruction.
|| As a Dictator ||
Mussolini loved Itlay passionately and wanted to make him a world power. As a dictator he made many reforms, built roads, harnessed rivers, increased industrial production, exploited natural resources and made the trains to run on time. He tried to colonize Eritrea and Libya on a vast scale. He loved games and sports and never did drink or smoke nor played cards. His eating habits were simply and frugal.
He made Itlay a powerful country and restored law and order. But finally, he and his mistress were shot dead by Italian Partisans near Como and were hanged to exhibit to the jeering crowds at Milan on April 18, 1945. Benedetto Croce, an Italian thinker, critic, statesman, historian and aesthete (1866-1952) regarded Mussolini, as a man ignorant. But in the opinion of Sir Winston Churchill, he was a great man. In fact, Mussolini was a great opportunist who at first favored and preached socialism, but after the First World War took totally a different stand.