Who is Charles Darwin?
Charles Darwin is an English biologist, scientist and naturalist Charles Darwin’s studies observations and theories revolutionized human thinking about creation and evolution of life of the earth. He was born on February 12, 1809 at hrewsbury, when Charles Darwin was just nine years old.
His theory of evolution through natural selection undermined beliefs about man’s being the supreme creation or product of God’s design. His idea that life is subject the survival of the fittest affected many later ethical and sociological theories. His ideas and stipulations made the basis of creation and existence many theological theories obsolete.
Darwin has been one of England’s greatest scientists and biologists. People in general are still busy in explaining, interpreting, defending or critic sing his theories though he has been dead for more than hundred year.
Interests and Career Achievements
He was not interested in books and eggs of the birds. Bird-watching was his hobby. He also took great interest in observing the insects. His total indifference to school and studies made his father conclude that Charles was really good for nothing.
When he was 16 years old he went the University of Edinburgh to study medicine. But here too he did not take interest in the studies. Later he went to Cambridge and did graduation in 1831. Then came an occasion which really proved a turning point in his life when in 1831 he joined an exploratory to study flora and fauna abroad the ship Beagle.
The ship sailed from England on December 27, 1831 for the southern coasts of South America and to sail around the world. The voyage lasted till October 1836. During these 5 years he made many significant experiments and examined all types of geological formations, fossils and studied minutely various types of plants and animals.
He returned to England in 1837 and there in 1839 published his studies, observations and experiments in “A Naturalists” Voyage on the Beagle. “ He came out his theory of evolution in the “Origin of Species” (1859) and “The Descent of Man” (1871)
Darwin and Alfred Russell life Changing Experiments
In his theory of evolution he explained that all kinds of living things have developed from at most, very few simple forms through natural selection among variations. He emphatically denied that evolution of man as a biological species is governed by forces fundamentally different from those influencing other forms of life. He said the origin of species from a few common ancestors happened million of years ago and this process of evolution still continues.
Darwin suggested his theories of evolution and natural selection with Alfred Russell Wallace. His extensive voyage and studies convinced him of the principal of natural selection. He asserted that all living beings must complete with one another in order to survive and exist.
This is the foundation of his theory of the “Survival of the fittest.” These ideas of Darwin took the world by storm and revolutionized our thinking. His theories are being still interpreted discussed enthusiastically. Different people explain Darwin’s ideas and theories in different ways.
During the late 19th century, such social Darwinist as Herbert Spencer in England and John Fiske in America tried to make racism intellectually acceptable. They advanced on pseudo-scientific theory after another to prove the superiority of Anglo-Saxons.
They believed and preached American superiority and exceptionalism and quoted Darwin from his book. The Descent of Man. “There is apparently much truth in the belief that the wonderful progress of the United States, as well as the character of the people, are the result of the natural selection; the move energetic, restless and courageous men from all parts of Europe have emigrated during the last ten or twelve generations to that great country.
Definition of ‘Evolution’ by Darwin and Discoveries of 3 Reefs
Evolution was not a new idea. It is as old the human history and civilization. For example, Lamark (1744-1829) maintained that plants and animals have evolved from simple to complex forms because of their inherent tendency to progress. However, environment and use and disuse of various organs modified this progression.
Darwin felt it was simply basted on speculation and not on facts and figures. Darwin used his experiences, observations and experiments to prove this theory of evolution scientifically. He also wrote extensively on such subjects as Coral reef, volcanic islands, branches and the geology of South America.
Darwin helped us to understand the mystery of coral reefs. He discovered the three types of coral reefs- fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls or rings of coral. After his long and painstaking study of the corals he concluded that under-sea volcano gives rise to a build a fringing reef. With the passage of time the volcano turns old and dead and then sinks. Consequently the fringing reef becomes to grow and then becomes a barrier reef.
How Evolution’s Works? by Charles Darwin
Undoubted what Darwin said in regard to evolution was nothing new, but he suggested and showed how evolution might have worked and happened. In his book the Descent of Man at one place he has said “we must, however, acknowledge, as it seems to m, that man stamps of his lowly origin. “
Neo-Darwinism is a combination of his ideas and discoveries and genetics.
Now it has been established beyond any shadow of doubt that certain very tiny chemical units called genes determine the traits that are passed from one generation to another.
The genes change, or transform from time to time. A changed gene causes a variation in a quality, and if the change is favorable to survival and struggle for existence, it may be passed on the next generation.
Final Days of Life
Charles Darwin died on 19th April, 1982 at Downe, Kent, England. He was buried in West-Minister Abbey and his mourners included such celebrities as Huxley, Wallace, and James Russell Lowel etc. he was laid to rest besides the grave or Sir Isaac Newton.