Who was Maithili Sharan Gupta?
Surrounded by the modern Hindi poets, Maithili Sharan Gupta occupies a very important place. He was our National poet. He was born is Chigrgoan District Jhansi (U.P) in 1883. His father’s name was Seth Ram Charan. He was very well off Vaishya.
Maithili Sharan Gupta got poetic genius in heritage. His father used to write poems under the fake name ‘Kanaklata’. His younger brother, Siya Ram Sharan Gupta was also famous for poets and writing style.
Maithili Sharan was fond of composing poems since his early childhood. In the beginning, he wrote poetry in Brajbhasha. Afterwards under the famous of Pandit Mahavir Dwivedi, he began to write poems in Khari Boli- in Hindi.
Writing harmonious poetry in Khari Boli, he set aside the disapproval that on account of its rattling words, Khari Boli was not suited write poetry. By writing beautiful poetry, in Khari Boli, Maithili Sharan Gupta proves that melodious poetry can be written in Khari Boli just like Brajbhasaha.
His poems were published in the Saraswati, a monthly Hindi Journal, edited by Pandit Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi in 1906 and subsequently. Completing the full tenure of life and having awards of honour. He left behind a nice legacy and a large prosperous family.
As a Great Versifier
His great Poems is ‘Rang-Men-Bhang’ a very small poems published in 1909, afterwards, his works small and large were published on after the other, which, in all are 52 in Number, they include, beyond his original works, some translation as well under the fake name “Madhup”.
He translated in poetry also in Bangla books Virahini Brajangana, War of Plasi and Meghanad Vadha. He translated some Sanskrit dramas also in Hindi language, he transcript in Hindi some poems of Umarkhayam as well.
Sharma Gupta is famous works are Bharat Bharti, Jaydrath Vadha, Saket Yashodahra, Panchwati , Dwapar, Vaitlik, Anagh, Nahush, Siddharaj, Vikat Bhat and Vishnu Priya.
Patriotism and faith in Bhartiya culture are the main features of his poetry. Whenever he may be writing, these both qualities are ever visible in Guptaji first national works in ‘Bharat Bharti’, which was published in 1912.
Through that Guptaji had drawn the attention of the people of Bharat towards the wonderful past and ill condition of Bharat GuptaJi gave momentum to his countrymen to throw away, the chains of overthrow.
After that in ‘Vaitalik’ he as true poets, woke the people Bharat from their sleep, directed them towards the path of progress. His all works, being full of feelings of nationalism and independence, father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi honoured Maithili Sharan Gupta, with the title of National Poet (Rashtra Kavi) in 1936.
In a occupation held at Kashi (Varanasi) , Mahatma GandhiJI , while conferring the title of National Poet, Bapu said, ‘He is the poet of the nation in the sense in which I became a Mahatma, while trying to mould the nation.
Fineness in Poetry
In the words of Acharya Pandit Ramcharndra Shukla, in the poetry of Guptaji there are three stages- the first stage is of charity of language estimate in which soft and smooth poetry is put before us.
The poems published in the ‘Saraswati’ and ‘Bharat Bharti’ are the works of this stage and of this period. To some lovers of poetry, these creations appear to be dry and as a matter of fact simple explanation, lacking musical and gentle words gave some offence.
The reason was that it was the period of moderation of Khari Boli. After that, GuptaJi studied poems in Bangla and translated in Hindi the works of Madhusudhan Datt. E.g., Brajangana, Meghand Vadh, etc. this gave to his poetry melody and gentility. His poems in between Bharat Bharti and Vaitalik may be taken as examples of the works of the second stage.
After that, the poems of so called Chhayawad came to be common and Guptaji inclined towards lyrics, and he introduced in his poetry symbolic usages. This leaning of Guptaji may be seen in ‘Saket’ and Yashodara’ also.
The finest excellence of Guptaji poetic genius is to keep with and change with the time, his capacity to adopt awaking ideas and the styles and poetry are commendable. In Yashodara’ Gupta Ji has trying to creates the importance of ‘Woman, and had shed tears on the deplorable circumstance of women, in Yashodara. In Panchwati, he calls the animal’s monarchy as the younger brother of men in the chain of development.
Devotee of Gods
Gupta ji is poet who does the great and the beautiful in the world of manifestations and found his God Sri Ram amongst the common men. Even Gupta was a devotee of Sri Ram, yet he compensated owing respect to Lord Krishna and Mahatma Gautam Buddha as well.
Gupta sang the songs of grandeur and glory of the past of Bharat, and has mainly written about great personalities of Puranas and Indian Ancients times. That is why he was mainly tending towards the epic style. ‘Saket and Yashodara’ are his well known epic poems. Very special accomplishments of Gupta ji poetic creation is that in his different there are included some such songs as remain in the reader’s memory for a long time.
The Acharya Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, Gupta Ji was very watchful while writing about love and erotic sentiments. He not at all crossed limits and maintained good behavior like Tulsi in the matters of love.
Representative of Country
Gupta ji presented the ancients subjects, in the form of new humanism in the spirit of mortality of Dwivedi Style. Being inspired by national realization, he chants songs of glorious of the country’s history, and also expressed resentment, anger, and sluggishness on the terrible conditions present in the country. Rabindra Nath Tagore influence, he sang songs of sympathy, and abandonment.
Legacy of GuptaJi and Specialty
Gupta ji one very excellence for he always aware of the changing conditions of the time, and continued writing poems incorporating therein the changing ideas and thoughts.
This is the reason why he linked in his poetry most of the trends of three generation those are, Bhartendu, Dwevedi and Chhayawad (Romanticism) not only that, we get in his poetry, the glimpses of Pragatiwad (Progressive poetry) but the inspiring forces of novel verse also.
Pandit Ram Chandra Shukla, We find in Bharat Bharti, the evolution of the patriotic feelings, which had been coming from Bhartendu period, the sentiments of respect of the glory of the past of Bhartendu epoch is not-worthy. We can get complete picture of the new form of political movements in his poems of Late Satyagaraha, non-violence and many more. and he died in 1964.